Modeling of freight transportation on Turkish highways

Ünal, Leyla
Transportation planners are often faced with the problem of estimating passenger and freight flows between regions. In the literature there are many models for passenger flows. However, models about freight flows are more limited. Modeling freight flow is also more complex than modeling passenger flow and there are many agents related with freight flows. In addition, data availability is a critical factor. In this research, freight flows between provinces in Türkiye are forecasted by demand analysis. Transportation is one of the important activities of human beings and plays an important role for spatial interactions in economic growth. In other words, there is a very strong linkage between economic growth and the freight flow, thus transportation demand. Regional trade as spatial flow appears on transportation systems as freight flows. In this study, using the existing limited data and surveys in Türkiye, nationwide origin-destination (O-D) matrix of freight flows between provinces is obtained. Using this empirical matrix, the generation of freight flows of provinces is formulated depending on the socioeconomic and demographic variables by means of multiple linear regression analysis. In addition, interactions of freight flows between provinces and economic growth of regions are investigated. The generations and attractions of provinces as freight flow are distributed between provinces with traditional gravity model. By comparing observed O-D matrix and simulated O-D matrix, gravity model is calibrated. Calibration is also performed by freight trip length distribution. In this research, two steps of traditional “four-step analysis”, “trip generation” and “trip distribution”, are applied to develop nationwide freight demand model between the provinces in Türkiye. The developed model is single-mode, single commodity and nationwide.


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To obtain a more sustainable transportation system, it is also important to decrease both fuel consumption and carbon emissions in road freight sector, as well. The first step towards this goal is to determine the current level of road freight demand and related emissions. This is rather challenging in Turkey, because disaggregate commodity flow data does not exist. However, annual roadside axle survey, performed by the Turkish General Directorate of Highways, is a valuable source of circulation information...
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Recently, road freight transportation dominates the freight sector in many countries including Turkey, which is causing a growing concern about environmental and sustainability issues. To develop better policies, road freight emissions have to be determined. Such evaluations are very challenging in the absence of disaggregate commodity flow data, which is the case in Turkey. As a solution, to calculate truck freight transportation emissions a model that combines national level national freight transportatio...
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For assessing load rating capacity of bridges, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Manual (AASHTO) recommends a simple method, where distribution of the forces in transverse direction is estimated by axle-load distribution factors on a simply supported beam. Although the method is practical in the sense that it allows for rapid evaluation of bridge populations, it leads to over-conservative load ratings. A finite element (FE) based load rating analysis is conceived as a more a...
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Citation Formats
L. Ünal, “Modeling of freight transportation on Turkish highways,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2009.