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Mechanism of inhibition of cytochrome p4501a1 associated 7-ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity and glutathione s-transferase (gst) activities in fish liver by phenolic compounds/flavonoids

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2010
Yılmaz, Duygu
Flavonoids, present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants, have been described as health-promoting, disease-preventing dietary supplements, and have activity as cancer preventive agents. The cancer protective effects of flavonoids have been attributed to a wide variety of mechanisms, including modulating enzyme activities resulting in the decreased carcinogenicity of xenobiotics. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a Phase I enzyme which is known to be involved in the activation of procarcinogens and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) is a Phase II enzyme which is largely responsible for the detoxification of carcinogens. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the mechanisms of inhibition of CYP1A1 and GST activities of fish by phenolic compounds/flavonoids. Leaping mullet (Liza saliens), captured from highly polluted sites of İzmir Bay, expressing high levels of CYP1A, were used in order to investigate these effects. It was demonstrated that all of the phenolic compounds/flavonoids used, exert an inhibitory effect on both CYP1A1 associated 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and GST activities of fish, although the degree of inhibition was varied with the flavonoid used. Of the flavonoids tested, the most potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 associated EROD activity was found to be quercetin. The potency of the phenolic compounds/flavonoids to inhibit CYP1A1 associated EROD activity follow the sequence of quercetin > resveratrol > naringenin > hesperidin > rutin with IC50 values of 1.32 µM, 3.59 µM, 9.78 µM, 98.5 µM and 0.64 mM respectively. Quercetin, resveratrol, hesperidin and rutin were found to inhibit EROD activity in a competitive manner, on the other hand, naringenin was found to inhibit EROD activity in a non-competitive manner. Inhibition constant (Ki) values of quercetin, resveratrol, naringenin, hesperidin and rutin were calculated from Dixon plots as 0.12 µM, 0.67 µM, 2.63 µM, 18 µM and 0.1 mM, respectively. In the case of GST enzyme, it was demonstrated that all of the phenolic compounds/flavonoids used, exert an inhibitory effect on both total GST and GST-Mu activities of fish. Of the flavonoids tested, the most effective inhibitor of total GST activity was found to be resveratrol. The potency of the phenolic compounds/flavonoids to inhibit total GST activity follow the sequence of resveratrol > quercetin > rutin > naringenin > hesperidin with IC50 values of 7.1 µM, 24.5 µM, 89 µM, 116 µM and 118 µM respectively. Resveratrol, quercetin and hesperidin were found to inhibit total GST activity in a competitive manner, on the other hand, rutin and naringenin were found to inhibit GST activity in a mixed type manner. Ki values of resveratrol, quercetin, hesperidin, naringenin and rutin were calculated from Dixon plots as 3.2 µM, 12.5 µM, 45 µM, 128 µM and 150 µM respectively. In the case of GST-Mu activity, the most potent inhibitor was found to be rutin. The potency of the phenolic compounds/flavonoids to inhibit GST-Mu activity follow the sequence of rutin > resveratrol > quercetin > naringenin > hesperidin with IC50 values of 66.5 µM, 72.3 µM, 113.5 µM, 135.5 µM and 196 µM, respectively. In conclusion, this study indicated that flavonoids were the strong inhibitors of CYP1A1 associated EROD activity and GST activities of mullet liver. The modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes by flavonoids is important in terms of human health, since these enzymes can activate or inactivate carcinogens. The potential role of xenobiotic metabolizers CYP1 family in the activation of carcinogens and inactivation of chemotherapeutics suggests a potential therapeutic benefits in inhibiting these enzymes. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that flavonoids may be involved in the prevention of malignant transformation, by reducing the formation of carcinogens through inhibition of enzymes such as CYP1A1 which is known to be involved in carcinogen activation.