Morphology, anatomy and systematics of the genus Salvia l. (Lamiaceae) in East and Southeast Anatolia, Turkey

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2011
Kahraman, Ahmet
This study aims to revise the genus Salvia L. in East and Southeast Anatolia in Turkey on the basis of macromorphological, anatomical, palynological, mericarp micro-morphological, ecological and numerical analysis. Towards achieving this goal, about 2500 specimens of Salvia were collected and examined during extensive field studies between July 2005 and June 2009. The materials collected by other researchers either from Turkey or abroad were also investigated. The results of the taxonomic revision show that the study area includes 59 taxa, 24 (40.7%) of which are endemic and the remaining 35 (59.3%) are non-endemic. Salvia siiirtica is described as new to science. S. macrosiphon is described as a new record for Turkey and S. cerino-pruinosa and S. pseudeuphratica are re-evaluated as valid species as well as S. ballsiana is rediscovered. Macromorphological characters that were considered to have taxonomically diagnostic value are investigated and their possible variations are discussed. Habit, stem, leaf, inflorescence, bract, calyx, corolla and stamen properties are compared at infrageneric and species level. The first comprehensive evaluation of the systematic value of anatomy, palynology and mericarp micromorphology of Salvia are presented. Some characters, such as row numbers of ray cells in the root, type of the leaf blade structure, shape of cross section of the petiole, shape and number of median vascular bundles, pollen size, size of mericarps and diameter of abscission scars, are useful for infrageneric delimitation. Variation in some anatomical characters, such as number of cell layers of collenchyma and cortex, number of cell layers of palisade parenchyma, size of petiole, number of lateral vascular bundles, exine ornamentation type of pollen, presence of large lumina in the middle of the primary lumen, the muri thickness, mericarp shape, mericarp length/width ratio and surface ornamentation type, can be used for separating species within the sections. Based on the updated geographical and ecological distribution, conservation status of the taxa is reassessed at regional, national and global levels. At the regional scale, the distribution is CR for 6 taxa EN for 9 taxa, VU for 5 taxa, NT for 10 taxa and LC for 29 taxa. At the national scale, the distribution is CR for 5 taxa, EN for 5 taxa, VU for 7 taxa, NT for 10 taxa and LC for 32 taxa. At the global scale, the distribution is CR for 5 taxa, EN for 3 taxa, VU for 6 taxa, NT for 10 taxa NT and LC for 35 taxa. The main threats in the study area are overgrazing, constructions, land clearing, fire, urbanization and tourism. The infrageneric delimitation is performed using multivariate analysis. Identification keys to sections and species are given. Synonymy, updated descriptions, phenology, distribution and habitats in Turkey, general distribution outside Turkey, distribution maps, phytogeography, specimen citations, some notes on taxonomy and photographs showing general appearance of the taxa are also provided.

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Citation Formats
A. Kahraman, “Morphology, anatomy and systematics of the genus Salvia l. (Lamiaceae) in East and Southeast Anatolia, Turkey,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2011.