# Numerical study of Rayleigh Bènard thermal convection via solenoidal bases

2011
Yıldırım, Cihan
Numerical study of transition in the Rayleigh-B\'enard problem of thermal convection between rigid plates heated from below under the influence of gravity with and without rotation is presented. The first numerical approach uses spectral element method with Fourier expansion for horizontal extent and Legendre polynomal for vertical extent for the purpose of generating a database for the subsequent analysis by using Karhunen-Lo\'eve (KL) decomposition. KL decompositions is a statistical tool to decompose the dynamics underlying a database representing a physical phenomena to its basic components in the form of an orthogonal KL basis. The KL basis satisfies all the spatial constraints such as the boundary conditions and the solenoidal (divergence-free) character of the underlying flow field as much as carried by the flow database. The optimally representative character of the orthogonal basis is used to investigate the convective flow for different parameters, such as Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. The second numerical approach uses divergence free basis functions that by construction satisfy the continuity equation and the boundary conditions in an expansion of the velocity flow field. The expansion bases for the thermal field are constructed to satisfy the boundary conditions. Both bases are based on the Legendre polynomials in the vertical direction in order to simplify the Galerkin projection procedure, while Fourier representation is used in the horizontal directions due to the horizontal extent of the computational domain taken as periodic. Dual bases are employed to reduce the governing Boussinesq equations to a dynamical system for the time dependent expansion coefficients. The dual bases are selected so that the pressure term is eliminated in the projection procedure. The resulting dynamical system is used to study the transitional regimes numerically. The main difference between the two approaches is the accuracy with which the solenoidal character of the flow is satisfied. The first approach needs a numerically or experimentally generated database for the generation of the divergence-free KL basis. The degree of the accuracy for the KL basis in satisfying the solenoidal character of the flow is limited to that of the database and in turn to the numerical technique used. This is a major challenge in most numerical simulation techniques for incompressible flow in literature. It is also dependent on the parameter values at which the underlying flow field is generated. However the second approach is parameter independent and it is based on analytically solenoidal basis that produces an almost exactly divergence-free flow field. This level of accuracy is especially important for the transition studies that explores the regions sensitive to parameter and flow perturbations.

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Citation Formats
C. Yıldırım, “Numerical study of Rayleigh Bènard thermal convection via solenoidal bases,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2011. 