Microstructural and mechanical characterization of duplex stainless steel grade 2205 joined by hybrid plasma and gas metal arc welding

Tolungüç, Burcu
In the present study, the applicability of the hybrid plasma arc welding, in which a keyhole is responsible of deep penetration and a filler wire electrode supplies a high deposition rate, was examined. The microstructural evolutions in grade 2205 duplex stainless steel plates joined by keyhole and melt-in techniques were investigated. The specimens obtained from welded plates having thickness of 8 mm were examined via optical and scanning electron microscopy. Metallographic investigations were supported by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersed spectra analyses by characterizing the phases formed after welding. Impact toughness properties, hardness profiles, and crack propagation behavior of welding zones were quantitatively and qualitatively compared for mechanical characterization. Fracture characteristics were determined via scanning electron microscopy examinations. It was observed that single-pass HPA weldment seemed to be free of secondary austenite precipitation in acicular form, which is inevitable in multi-pass conventional arc welding methods. Besides δ-ferrite was successfully kept under 70%, which is presented as a limit to not to deteriorate the mechanical properties of DSS. High linear welding speed and high power density supplied by HPAW presented narrower weld metal and heat affected zone with not only lower hardness but also higher impact toughness energies. Synergic effect of the keyhole formed by a plasma arc and the metal transfer supplied by gas metal arc gave reasonable dilution in the weld metal. Furthermore, fatigue crack growth tests revealed that crack propagation rates in HPAW joints were comparable to GMAW joints.