An investigation on the mineralogical, petrogaphical and chemical properties of stone objects from Karain Cave, Antalya-Turkey

Efe, Mehmet
The archaeological and technical questions about ancient stone tools lead to various research activities such as chemical and petrographical analysis. Considering research areas and publications it can be suggested that mineralogical studies of stone samples of ancient stone tools have disclosed useful information concerning identification of the stone. Within this context, aim of this study is to determine the chemical, mineralogical and petrographical identities of the stone samples of Karain Cave (Antalya). Most paleolithic caves show one specific time interval layer but Karain Cave shows lower-upper and middle layers which give information about the migration ways between Near East and Europe. Stone tools excavated from Karain Cave are not only first human remainings in Anatolia but also first artworks of Anatolian people.Most of the stone tools excavated from Karain Cave are cherts. These cherts were analysed for archeological aspects but mineralogical, petrographical, and chemical contents have not been analysed yet. During the excavations at the Karain Cave in Antalya many stone pieces in different sizes and colors had been found. In this study ten samples were examined. The methods used consists of thin section, X- ray powder diffraction , scanning - electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis , differential thermal analyses and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine material characteristics of the samples. Petrographically the nine of the samples are chert with some including radiolarian fossils. Microcrystalline á - quartz is the major mineral in the chert. Only one sample is composed calcite and is identified as micritic limestone. Chemical analysis reflect the typical composition of chert with the average values of; 40.9% Si and 1 sample is limestone, which is composed of 35.7% Ca . Minor elements are Fe, Al, K, and Ti in the samples. Thermal analysis is also supported the thin section studies.Further research is suggested for provenance analysis of stone tools from the Karain Cave.


An archaeometric application to a group of early Ottoman ceramics from İznik
Kırmızı, Burcu; Göktürk, Emine Hale; Department of Archaeometry (2004)
This study investigates the physical, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of a group of pottery sherds that are mostly Miletus-ware ceramics, belonging to the Early Ottoman period and excavated during 2003 season, from the The sherds examined are mostly characterized by cobalt-blue designs which are occasionally coupled with black, green and purple paintings. After grouping the sherds according to their stylistic and color differences; petrographic, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope cou...
Examining the Lycian Sites by Using GIS
Aydın, Ervin Kenan; Toprak, Vedat; Department of Archaeometry (2006)
This study investigates the relationship between the ancient settlements (in Lycia) and physical environmental parameters including topography, rock and soil types using GIS. Modern settlements are also included in the study to analyze if the response has changed to these parameters from past to the present. The databases created in the study include three topographic attributes (elevation, slope and aspect), rock type, soil type, ancient settlements and modern settlements. Analyses performed in the study i...
Archaeometrical and geoarchaeological studies in prehistoric settlement of domuztepe (Kahramanmaraş-Turkey)
Dirican, Murat; Günal Türkmenoğlu, Asuman; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Department of Archaeometry (2018)
The aim of this study is to investigate pottery and stone vessels from Domuztepe, a Late Neolithic settlement in southeast Turkey, located to the south of Kahramanmaraş by means of archaeometrical and geoarchaeological methods in an attempt to understand the local resource use and production technologies. Domuztepe represents the northwestern border of a unique material culture distribution commonly known as “Halaf culture” which had influenced vast regions of northern Mesopotamia during the Late Neolithic ...
Non-destructive x-ray flourescence analysis of early bronze age metal items from Kalınkaya-Toptaştepe: with critical remarks on the formerly applied electrochemical cleaning procedure
Geniş, Evren Yiğit; Kalkanlı, Ali; Zimmermann, Thomas; Department of Archaeometry (2011)
This thesis focuses on late Early Bronze Age metal objects from funeral context from the site Kalınkaya-Toptaştepe, dated to the late 4th and 3rd millennium BCE. The site yielded a large number of metal objects from EBA necropolis of the southern slope of Toptaştepe, offering an ideal closed assemblage for an archaeometrical analysis to reveal the metalworking technologies of an early small rural community of Central Anatolia. First archaeometrical analysis applied on these objects, however, revealed unexpe...
Characterization of Emecik limestone figurines for provenance
Muşkara, Üftade; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Tuna, Numan; Department of Archaeometry (2013)
Archaeometry, the collaboration of different disciplines with archaeology, has revealed some facts that could change our understanding of the past. Provenance studies should be among the primary topics in interdisciplinary archaeometric reseach. Provenance studies, determining the source of the archaeological materials, play an important role in the understanding and reconstruction of trade connections, and social, political and religious relationships of ancient societies. A group of limestone figurines da...
Citation Formats
M. Efe, “An investigation on the mineralogical, petrogaphical and chemical properties of stone objects from Karain Cave, Antalya-Turkey,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2012.