An investigation on the mineralogical, petrogaphical and chemical properties of stone objects from Karain Cave, Antalya-Turkey

Efe, Mehmet
The archaeological and technical questions about ancient stone tools lead to various research activities such as chemical and petrographical analysis. Considering research areas and publications it can be suggested that mineralogical studies of stone samples of ancient stone tools have disclosed useful information concerning identification of the stone. Within this context, aim of this study is to determine the chemical, mineralogical and petrographical identities of the stone samples of Karain Cave (Antalya). Most paleolithic caves show one specific time interval layer but Karain Cave shows lower-upper and middle layers which give information about the migration ways between Near East and Europe. Stone tools excavated from Karain Cave are not only first human remainings in Anatolia but also first artworks of Anatolian people.Most of the stone tools excavated from Karain Cave are cherts. These cherts were analysed for archeological aspects but mineralogical, petrographical, and chemical contents have not been analysed yet. During the excavations at the Karain Cave in Antalya many stone pieces in different sizes and colors had been found. In this study ten samples were examined. The methods used consists of thin section, X- ray powder diffraction , scanning - electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis , differential thermal analyses and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine material characteristics of the samples. Petrographically the nine of the samples are chert with some including radiolarian fossils. Microcrystalline á - quartz is the major mineral in the chert. Only one sample is composed calcite and is identified as micritic limestone. Chemical analysis reflect the typical composition of chert with the average values of; 40.9% Si and 1 sample is limestone, which is composed of 35.7% Ca . Minor elements are Fe, Al, K, and Ti in the samples. Thermal analysis is also supported the thin section studies.Further research is suggested for provenance analysis of stone tools from the Karain Cave.


A comprehensive evaluation of sedimentary zeolites from Turkey as pozzolanic addition of cement- and lime-based binders
ÖZEN KARSLI, SEVGİ; Göncüoğlu, Mehmet Cemal; Liguori, B.; de Gennaro, B.; Cappelletti, P.; Gatta, G. D.; Iucolano, F.; Colella, C. (2016-02-15)
The pozzolanic action played by five natural zeolite-rich materials (three clinoptilolite- and one each mordenite- and analcime-bearing rocks) coming from Turkey, has been examined, evaluating also the influence of various chemical-physical parameters, such as grain size of the zeolitic materials and nature of the cation present as extra-framework component of the structure. Pozzolan activity has been estimated by the official test of the European Standards and by thermogravimetry, finding a good accordance...
Characterization of Emecik limestone figurines for provenance
Muşkara, Üftade; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Tuna, Numan; Department of Archaeometry (2013)
Archaeometry, the collaboration of different disciplines with archaeology, has revealed some facts that could change our understanding of the past. Provenance studies should be among the primary topics in interdisciplinary archaeometric reseach. Provenance studies, determining the source of the archaeological materials, play an important role in the understanding and reconstruction of trade connections, and social, political and religious relationships of ancient societies. A group of limestone figurines da...
Identification of possible source areas of stone raw materials combining remote sensing and petrography
TANYAS, Hakan; DIRICAN, Murat; Süzen, Mehmet Lütfi; TURKMENOGLU, Asuman G.; Kolat, Çağıl; Atakuman, Çiğdem (2017-01-01)
Understanding the location and distribution of raw materials used in the production of prehistoric artefacts is a significant part of archaeological research that aims to understand the interregional interaction patterns in the past. The aim of this study is to explore the regional locations of the source rock utilized in the production of stone bowls, which were unearthed at the Neolithic (approximately 6500-5500 BC) site of Domuztepe (Kahramanmaras-Turkey), via a combination of remote-sensing methods, pet...
The Thermal Characterization of Crude Oils in a Limestone Matrix of Different Particle Size
Kök, Mustafa Verşan (2014-05-03)
In the first part of this research, the effect of particle size (35-100 mesh) on the calcination kinetics of a limestone sample was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis technique. Thermal studies showed that two main weight loss regions are observed in limestone samples of different particle size. In the second part of the research, thermal analysis of a medium crude oil sample in a limestone matrix of different particle size is analyzed. Two different reaction regions were observed known as low tempe...
An experimental investigation on the chemical stability of selected formation and determination of the proper type of water-base drilling fluids. Part 2. Test results
Erkekol, Selcuk; Gucuyener, I. Hakki; Kök, Mustafa Verşan (Informa UK Limited, 2006-07-01)
The objective of this study was to select the proper drilling fluid type and composition for drilling stable holes through the problems of the selected formations. This study was performed on shale samples taken from 10 wells in which hole instability was encountered to various extents during drilling the Germav formation. Both ionic and polymer inhibitions were utilized in formulating the proper drilling for the Germav formation. Ionic inhibition was obtained using KCl and NaCl. Polyanionic polymer (Pac-L)...
Citation Formats
M. Efe, “An investigation on the mineralogical, petrogaphical and chemical properties of stone objects from Karain Cave, Antalya-Turkey,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2012.