Geotechnical characterization and rock mass classification of the Antalya karstic rock masses

Sopacı, Evrim
This thesis identifies the geotechnical parameters of the Antalya karstic foundation rocks (travertine/tufa), which are highly variable in nature, by means of geological observations, geotechnical site investigations, and field and laboratory geomechanics tests to examine karstic (mainly tufa) rock mass behavior. Several geotechnical parameters such as porosity, seismic wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young’s modulus, tensile strength, etc. that are thought to have significant influence on rock mass behavior have been tested and statistically analyzed. Principal component analysis and multiple linear and non-linear regression analyses have been carried out in order to reveal correlations between the geotechnical parameters tested. Porosity has been statistically determined to be one of the major parameters governing the strength of the Antalya tufa rock mass. Intact rock failure criteria, among which Bieniawski’s criterion has been proven to be more appropriate for each tufa type (phytoherm framestone, phytoherm boundstone, microcrystalline tufa, phytoclast tufa and intraclast tufa) along with the Antalya tufa rock mass have been determined from the experiments. GSI rock mass classification of the Antalya tufa rock mass, whose GSI value was recommended between 20±5 and 75±5, has been attempted to be used in engineering design. Furthermore, the depth and dimension of the karstic cavities and fractures have been investigated by the geophysical tests, surface geological survey and subsurface investigations (borings and observation pits).


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The purpose of this study is to assess the engineering geological and geotechnical characteristics and to perform seismic hazard studies of the Upper Pliocene and Quaternary deposits located towards the west of Ankara. Based on a general engineering geological and seismic characterization of the site, site classification systems are assigned for seismic hazard assessment studies. The objective of the research is to determine the regional and local seismic soil conditions, predominant periods and ground ampl...
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This paper presents the identification of the geotechnical parameters of the Antalya karstic foundation rocks (travertine/tufa), whose mechanical behavior is highly variable due to its composition. Antalya tufa rock has numerous types/members of tufa, each has different structures. It has no well-developed joint system and is variably porous. In order to reveal the controlling geotechnical parameters for the mechanical behavior of the Antalya tufa rock and to develop a comprehensive geotechnical database, n...
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Citation Formats
E. Sopacı, “Geotechnical characterization and rock mass classification of the Antalya karstic rock masses,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2012.