Optimization of mechanical and microstructural properties of weld joints between aluminium - magnesium and aluminium - magnesium - silicon alloys with different thicknesses

Ekşi, Murat
For the last decades usage of aluminium alloys have been increasing tremendously. They have been used in aerospace industry widely and now aluminium alloys are becoming more and more popular in automotive and defense industries. Consequently; successful welding of aluminium alloys gains importance. In this study a research is carried out on eldability of plates having different thicknesses of composition 5754 aluminium and 6063 aluminium in T-fillet geometry using Gas-metal Arc Welding technique. It was aimed to have a successful joint without using pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments. During tests welding current and voltage were the varying parameters as welding speed was held constant. Macro-examinations were performed to see the penetration of the weld metal. It was seen that the type of filler wire greatly effects weld penetration. Hardness tests, tensile tests were done to compare the mechanical properties of the welded joints with different filler wires. Despite having better penetration in 4043 filler wire used weld joints, 5356 filler wire used weld joints had higher tensile strength and ductility. In the second part of the study, a dynamic loading machine was designed and manufactured to see the behavior of the fillet welds under dynamic loading. The amount of stress and strain given to the specimen on this machine was adjustable but can’t be measured. The tests that were made with this machine aimed only to compare the number of cycles of specimens before fracture. For dynamic loading tests two groups of specimens were prepared with filler wire 4043; each group having been welded with different heat inputs. It was aimed to see the effect of welding heat input on service lifes but no significant difference between cycle numbers of specimen groups having been welded with different heat inputs was observed. Microstructure examinations of these specimens revealed that coarsening the grains, grain boundaries, particles in PMZ and HAZ regions between Al 6063 base metal and weld zone made these areas more susceptible and favorable for crack propogation than Al 6063 base metal.