Numerical investigation of effective surge tank dimensions in hydropower plants under various hydraulic conditions

Berberoğlu, Pınar
In water conveyance systems, sudden changes in the flow velocity cause a phenomenon called waterhammer associated with high pressure head changes. Unless a control device is used as a precaution, waterhammer may result in costly damages and even in some cases, loss of human lives. In light of this concept, different control devices that can protect the systems against waterhammer are introduced so that the great pressure differences are absorbed and the system is maintained undamaged. In this thesis, the main functions, the requirements for its construction and the different types of the surge tanks are explained. The governing differential equations defining the flow conditions of the surge tanks and their solutions are provided. In addition, for the use of design engineers a procedure to determine proper dimensions of a surge tank is developed. For the sake of dimensioning the surge tank effectively, empirical equations, which calculate the height of three different types of surge tanks with dimensionless parameters, are obtained. With the help of regression analysis, the correlation between the parameters of the developed equations are determined, and found to be relatively high. Finally, the economical aspect of a surge tank is discussed and comparison parameters are introduced to the designer.


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Sudden change of flow conditions in a pipeline may cause the flow to become time dependent and would start an undesirable physical phenomenon called water hammer. These sudden changes can be caused by variety of scenarios and some of them include valve operations (opening or closing), sudden power loss at pump stations and load rejections or load acceptance at the turbines, etc. Because of its very costly to solve, and sometimes deadly results, it is quite important that transient scenarios be considered fo...
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Aybar, Akın; Aydın, İsmail; Department of Civil Engineering (2012)
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A new computer code development for solving fluid transient problems in pressurized pipelines
Uyanık, Murat Cenk; Bozkuş, Zafer; Department of Civil Engineering (2023-1-26)
The water hammer phenomenon, which occurs as a result of changes in the boundary conditions of hydraulic systems, can cause major and dangerous problems. Opening or closing of the valve component, sudden power loss or pump startup, change of water level in the reservoir, etc. can be examples of these boundary condition changes. These problems must be considered at the design stage of hydraulic pipeline systems in order to predict and prevent dangerous results. Since the calculation of water hammer analysis ...
Citation Formats
P. Berberoğlu, “Numerical investigation of effective surge tank dimensions in hydropower plants under various hydraulic conditions,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2013.