Numerical investigation of effective surge tank dimensions in hydropower plants under various hydraulic conditions

Berberoğlu, Pınar
In water conveyance systems, sudden changes in the flow velocity cause a phenomenon called waterhammer associated with high pressure head changes. Unless a control device is used as a precaution, waterhammer may result in costly damages and even in some cases, loss of human lives. In light of this concept, different control devices that can protect the systems against waterhammer are introduced so that the great pressure differences are absorbed and the system is maintained undamaged. In this thesis, the main functions, the requirements for its construction and the different types of the surge tanks are explained. The governing differential equations defining the flow conditions of the surge tanks and their solutions are provided. In addition, for the use of design engineers a procedure to determine proper dimensions of a surge tank is developed. For the sake of dimensioning the surge tank effectively, empirical equations, which calculate the height of three different types of surge tanks with dimensionless parameters, are obtained. With the help of regression analysis, the correlation between the parameters of the developed equations are determined, and found to be relatively high. Finally, the economical aspect of a surge tank is discussed and comparison parameters are introduced to the designer.


Development of a computer code to analyse fluid transients in pressurized pipe systems
Dalgıç, Hasan; Bozkuş, Zafer; Department of Civil Engineering (2017)
Sudden change of flow conditions in a pipeline may cause the flow to become time dependent and would start an undesirable physical phenomenon called water hammer. These sudden changes can be caused by variety of scenarios and some of them include valve operations (opening or closing), sudden power loss at pump stations and load rejections or load acceptance at the turbines, etc. Because of its very costly to solve, and sometimes deadly results, it is quite important that transient scenarios be considered fo...
Investigation of water hammer problems and potential solutions in pump discharge lines
Erdem, Recep Çağrı; Bozkuş, Zafer; Department of Civil Engineering (2019)
Disturbance in boundary conditions of a hydraulic system could cause rapid change in flow velocity in confined pipe systems. Pressure wave leading to an event called water hammer may occur as a consequence of that disturbance. Water hammer could lead to catastrophic failures on the hydraulic systems. Thus, proper protection measures should be defined and installed in the system before it is put into operation. The aim of this study is to analyze a pumped discharge line and ensure its safe operation against ...
Computational modelling of free surface flow in intake structures using flow 3D software
Aybar, Akın; Aydın, İsmail; Department of Civil Engineering (2012)
Intakes are inlet structures where fluid is accelerated to a certain flow velocity to provide required amount of water into a hydraulic system. Intake size and geometry affects the formation of flow patterns, which can be influential for hydraulic performance of the whole system. An experimental study is conducted by measuring velocity field in the hydraulic model of the head pond of a hydropower plant to investigate vortex formation. Vortex strength based on potential flow theory is calculated from the mea...
Determination of critical submergence depth at horizontal intakes
Haspolat, Emre; Göğüş, Mustafa; Köken, Mete; Department of Civil Engineering (2015)
The purpose of the study is to investigate the formation of air entraining vortices under both symmetrical and asymmetrical approach flow conditions in an experimental setup of a horizontal water intake structure composed of a reservoir-pipe system. To determine at which critical submergence the air entraining vortices forming; a series of experiments were conducted in the experimental setup with horizontal pipes of four different diameters. Approach channel side walls of the intake structure model are adju...
Simulation of surface waves generated by a rapid rise of a block at the sea bottom
Şenol, Nalan; Aydın, İsmail; Department of Civil Engineering (2005)
A mathematical model is developed for investigating time dependent surface deformations of a hydrostatic water volume, when it is subjected to a sudden partial rise of the sea bottom. In the model, 2-dimensional, compressible, and viscous Navier-Stokes equations are solved by Marker and Cell (MAC) method. Variable mesh size in both horizontal and vertical directions with a staggered grid arrangement is used. Limited compressibility model is utilized for pressure. Various computational tests are done for the...
Citation Formats
P. Berberoğlu, “Numerical investigation of effective surge tank dimensions in hydropower plants under various hydraulic conditions,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2013.