Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Ankara atmosphere

Uzunpınar, Elif Sena
In this study, ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) in Ankara atmosphere were measured to determine the current level and sources of these compounds. Sampling was performed at METU Department of Environmental Engineering from January, 2014 to December, 2014 with stainless-steel canisters. Mean VOC concentrations ranged between 0.04 μg m-3 (cis-2-pentene) and 10.30 μg m-3 (toluene) with average benzene concentration of 1.49 μg m-3. The annual limit of 5 μg m-3 for benzene was exceeded nine times during the sampling period. Four-stage comparison was applied to measured concentrations with: (i) Ankara city center, (ii) previous studies at METU, (iii) other cities in Turkey and (iv) other cities around the world. Evaluations yielded comparatively lower concentrations with Ankara city center, Turkey and the world. METU comparison revealed an increase in VOC concentrations due to increase in campus traffic. Investigation of diurnal, weekday/weekend and seasonal variations showed that the traffic is the dominant pattern in the campus. Effect of meteorological parameters, such as temperature, mixing height and wind speed, on the measured concentrations were also examined. Application of Factor Analysis yielded nine factors under four components with contributions given in paranthesis; (1) transportation: gasoline vehicle exhaust emissions, evaporative losses from gasoline vehicles, gasoline evaporation in gas stations and diesel emissions (60%), (2) industrial emissions: industrial evaporation and industrial application (8%), (3) solvent emissions: surface coatings and second solvent use (8%) and (4) asphalt application (3.5%).


Determination of source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Ankara
Sert, Ezgi; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal; Aslan Kılavuz, Seda; Department of Environmental Engineering (2017)
In this study, ambient concentrations of fifty-one volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured to determine their current level, emission sources and contributions in both urban and suburban atmosphere of Ankara. Two sampling stations were established in Ankara, one in Ankara University (AU), Faculty of Agriculture, other in Middle East Technical University (METU). AU stations is for representing the urban atmosphere while METU represents suburban atmosphere. In these stations with canister sampling, be...
Sources of volatile organic compounds at urban and rural Kütahya atmosphere
Bek, Tuğçe; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal; Department of Environmental Engineering (2015)
This study is a part of a fairly extensive study to investigate contributions of the two thermal power plants, Tunçbilek and Seyitömer, on air quality at Kütahya atmosphere. VOCs were measured at two sampling stations, one was established in the down-town of Kütahya and the other one in the Northeast of the Kütahya. Samples were collected using canisters and they were analyzed using GC-FID system. Average concentrations of VOCs varied between 0.12 g/m3 and 23 g/m3 at urban station and 0.06 g/m3 and 33 g...
Ambient VOC concentrations in the city of Balikesir and its environment
Yalçın, Giyasettin Efdal; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal; Department of Environmental Engineering (2013)
The assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become an important field of interest in atmospheric pollution. This study quantifies and characterizes the ambient levels and spatial distribution of VOCs in urban and rural areas of Balıkesir. In addition, for the city drinking water dam excess flux from the traffic estimation was done. For these assessments passive sampling of VOCs performed at approximately 50 locations in and around the city of Balıkesir and analyzed with GC-FID system. Tenax TA w...
Source Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds and Particulate Matters in an Urban and Industrial Areas of Turkey
PEKEY, BEYHAN; PEKEY, HAKAN; DOĞAN, GÜRAY; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal; Arslanbaşı, Demet; BOZKURT, ZEHRA (2015-06-01)
Elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matters have been observed in recent years in Kocaeli, Turkey, despite improvements in pollution prevention technology that have led to a reduction in gas and particulate emissions. Local authorities should devise alternative strategies to reduce the possible health effects of a variety of pollutants that affect air quality. The objective of this study was to identify potential sources of VOCs, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and coarse pa...
Source Apportionment of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds in Bursa, a Heavily Industrialized City in Turkey
CİVAN, MİHRİBAN; Kuntasal, Oznur Oguz; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal (2011-01-01)
Weekly passive sampling campaigns were carried out over two sample periods to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Bursa, one of the most heavily industrialized cities in Turkey. The measurements, taken at 40 points in October 2005 and 49 points in April 2006, revealed concentrations of 34 VOCs, including aromatics, olefins, paraffin and halogenated compounds; with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o, m, and p-xylene polymers (BTEX) being the most abundant compounds detected at all sample points. ...
Citation Formats
E. S. Uzunpınar, “Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Ankara atmosphere,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2015.