Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Ankara atmosphere

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2015
Uzunpınar, Elif Sena
In this study, ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) in Ankara atmosphere were measured to determine the current level and sources of these compounds. Sampling was performed at METU Department of Environmental Engineering from January, 2014 to December, 2014 with stainless-steel canisters. Mean VOC concentrations ranged between 0.04 μg m-3 (cis-2-pentene) and 10.30 μg m-3 (toluene) with average benzene concentration of 1.49 μg m-3. The annual limit of 5 μg m-3 for benzene was exceeded nine times during the sampling period. Four-stage comparison was applied to measured concentrations with: (i) Ankara city center, (ii) previous studies at METU, (iii) other cities in Turkey and (iv) other cities around the world. Evaluations yielded comparatively lower concentrations with Ankara city center, Turkey and the world. METU comparison revealed an increase in VOC concentrations due to increase in campus traffic. Investigation of diurnal, weekday/weekend and seasonal variations showed that the traffic is the dominant pattern in the campus. Effect of meteorological parameters, such as temperature, mixing height and wind speed, on the measured concentrations were also examined. Application of Factor Analysis yielded nine factors under four components with contributions given in paranthesis; (1) transportation: gasoline vehicle exhaust emissions, evaporative losses from gasoline vehicles, gasoline evaporation in gas stations and diesel emissions (60%), (2) industrial emissions: industrial evaporation and industrial application (8%), (3) solvent emissions: surface coatings and second solvent use (8%) and (4) asphalt application (3.5%).

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Citation Formats
E. S. Uzunpınar, “Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Ankara atmosphere,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2015.