End-of-life analysis for brick debris: recovery, strength, life cycle cost and environmental assessment

Üçer Erduran, Deniz
There exists a vast stock of masonry buildings in the world, yet, some of them are being demolished and disposed of; owing to the changes in building bye-laws, redundancies of buildings; and clearing the plots for new and mostly taller buildings. Either demolition or deconstruction is preferred; huge amounts of masonry-based waste are accumulated in the end. On the other end, since these buildings are not always demolished due to wear and tear, the condition of masonry walls after demolition may still be of a good quality that may be conducive to their use elsewhere. Thus, recovery of these materials not only helps to salvage the old materials but also contributes to environmental sustainability, as well as carrying the historical value of the building by integrating these materials into the new design. This study investigates state-of-art about rules and regulations, recovery proposals, usability & physical properties, environmental and economic assessment of demolition of masonry buildings and salvaging methods for their debris. Accordingly, two buildings i.e. a historical load bearing solid brick masonry building in Russia and a concrete framed, hollow brick infill building in Turkey were chosen to monitor their demolition processes and determine the eventual condition of debris. It was observed that large vi wall sections with load bearing solid bricks from the historical building as well as the hollow brick wall pieces from the the reinforced concrete contemporary building could be reused by using various techniques to clean, cut and prepare them for integration into new wall construction. Mechanical properties obtained from compression, flexure and shear tests on few samples exhibited higher values than allowable limits in the standards; which is conducive in terms of materials reuse. Additionally, digital models of these recovery methods showed lower environmental impacts in terms of human health, ecosystem quality, climate change and resources in comparison to the new walls, when simulated in SimaPro Life Cycle Assessment software. In contrast to the promising results (for reuse) obtained from strength tests and environmental impact simulations; the costs of the proposals for reuse are higher than the construction with new materials. This is due to the fact that cutting and shaping of the debris brings extra cost to the recovery process. In conclusion, although the reuse of salvaged material was determined as advantageous from the point of view of environmental and social aspects of sustainability, the economic aspect has disadvantages that can be overcome by better recovery and salvaging methodologies. Hence, more efficient and cost reducing processes need to be investigated.


Sucuoğlu, Haluk (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 1991-07-01)
Masonry buildings have been, and remain, a popular form for economically enclosing space. Whereas such buildings are safe under gravity loads, most are vulnerable to horizontal loads due to earthquakes. Observations following an earthquake and experimental programs have shown that piers between openings are the most vulnerable part of a masonry building, and that the failure of such piers is due in the majority of cases to shear (or diagonal tension). Accordingly, the study described concerns the seismic...
Analysis on the mechanical properties of historical brick masonry after machinery demolition
Ucer, Deniz; Ulybin, Aleksey; Zubkov, Sergey; Elias Özkan, Soofia Tahira (2018-02-10)
The demolition process of a historical brick masonry building in St. Petersburg, Russia was observed as a case study and research was conducted on the possibility of reusing the resultant debris, which was composed of high quality brick masonry, as new building material. Therefore, samples from the demolition debris, i.e. brick, mortar and wall pieces were collected and tested for their mechanical properties, according to Russian standards, when available, and according to International Standards for the re...
Performance-based seismic rehabilitation of damaged reinforced concrete buildings
Sucuoğlu, Haluk; Gunay, MS (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2004-10-01)
A building stock consisting of 130 medium-rise reinforced concrete buildings were damaged moderately during the recent earthquakes in Turkey. These buildings were rehabilitated by using simple, cost-effective methods where the newly added shear walls comprised the primary lateral load resisting system. In the presented study, different seismic performance evaluation procedures are tested first on the samples of damaged buildings for predicting their observed performances. Then the expected performances of t...
Use of engineered cementitious composite panels for seismic strengthening
Ayatar, Mehmet Engin; Canbay, Erdem; Department of Civil Engineering (2018)
Due to the massive number of deficient buildings in seismically active zones, the demolition and rebuilding of such structures is not a viable option. Instead, rehabilitation of seismically deficient buildings is commonly employed. Although, the most preferred rehabilitation approach has been the application of RC infills to the frames, this technique inevitably causes the evacuation of the structure. Therefore, there have been many studies on new occupant-friendly strengthening techniques. The aim of this ...
Commonly encountered seismic design faults due to the architectural design of residential buildings in Turkey
Özmen, Cengiz; Ünay, Ali İhsan (Elsevier BV, 2007-3)
The 17 August 1999 and 12 November 1999 earthquakes in Western Anatolia provided undesirable field evidence that most of the low story residential reinforced concrete buildings have very poor earthquake resistance. Architectural design faults negatively affect the structural behavior of buildings. In Turkey, earthquake-resistant design is considered to be exclusively within the field of responsibility of structural engineers. As a result, architects and especially students of architecture are not well infor...
Citation Formats
D. Üçer Erduran, “End-of-life analysis for brick debris: recovery, strength, life cycle cost and environmental assessment,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2018.