Syntactic Recursion Facilitates and Working Memory Predicts Recursive Theory of Mind

Arslan, Burcu
Verbrugge, Rineke
In this study, we focus on the possible roles of second-order syntactic recursion and working memory in terms of simple and complex span tasks in the development of second-order false belief reasoning. We tested 89 Turkish children in two age groups, one younger (4;6-6;5 years) and one older (6;7-8;10 years). Although second-order syntactic recursion is significantly correlated with the second-order false belief task, results of ordinal logistic regressions revealed that the main predictor of second-order false belief reasoning is complex working memory span. Unlike simple working memory and second-order syntactic recursion tasks, the complex working memory task required processing information serially with additional reasoning demands that require complex working memory strategies. Based on our results, we propose that children's second-order theory of mind develops when they have efficient reasoning rules to process embedded beliefs serially, thus overcoming a possible serial processing bottleneck.


Almost Periodic Solutions of Recurrent Neural Networks with State-Dependent and Structured Impulses
Akhmet, Marat; Erim, Gülbahar (2023-01-01)
The subject of the present paper is recurrent neural networks with variable impulsive moments. The impact activation functions are specified such that the structure for the jump equations are in full accordance with that one for the differential equation. The system studied in this paper covers the works done before, not only because the impacts have recurrent form, but also impulses are not state-dependent. The conditions for existence and uniqueness of asymptotically stable discontinuous almost periodic s...
Recursive Compositional Reinforcement Learning for Continuous Control Sürekli Kontrol Uygulamalari için Özyinelemeli Bileşimsel Pekiştirmeli Öǧrenme
Tanik, Guven Orkun; Ertekin Bolelli, Şeyda (2022-01-01)
Compositional and temporal abstraction is the key to improving learning and planning in reinforcement learning. Modern real-world control problems call for continuous control domains and robust, sample efficient and explainable control frameworks. We are presenting a framework for recursively composing control skills to solve compositional and progressively complex tasks. The framework promotes reuse of skills, and as a result quickly adaptable to new tasks. The decision-tree can be observed, providing insi...
Improving reinforcement learning using distinctive clues of the environment
Demir, Alper; Polat, Faruk; Department of Computer Engineering (2019)
Effective decomposition and abstraction has been shown to improve the performance of Reinforcement Learning. An agent can use the clues from the environment to either partition the problem into sub-problems or get informed about its progress in a given task. In a fully observable environment such clues may come from subgoals while in a partially observable environment they may be provided by unique experiences. The contribution of this thesis is two fold; first improvements over automatic subgoal identifica...
Temporal logic model predictive control for discrete time systems
Aydın Göl, Ebru (2013-04-08)
This paper proposes an optimal control strategy for a discrete-time linear system constrained to satisfy a temporal logic specification over a set of linear predicates in its state variables. The cost is a quadratic function that penalizes the distance from desired state and control trajectories. The specification is a formula of syntactically co-safe Linear Temporal Logic (scLTL), which can be satisfied in finite time. It is assumed that the reference trajectories are only available over a finite horizon a...
Expectation propagation for state estimation with discrete-valued hidden random variables
Sarıtaş, Elif; Orguner, Umut; Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (2023-2-21)
In this thesis, the expectation propagation (EP) approach of Minka is considered for the estimation problems in dynamical systems with discrete hidden random variables where optimal posteriors are usually intractable. The concept of context adjustment is introduced to avoid/alleviate indefinite covariance problems encountered in standard EP implementations in a systematic way. Additionally, the moment projection (Mprojection) problem involving pseudo-Gaussian likelihoods as factors is solved to be used in t...
Citation Formats
B. Arslan and R. Verbrugge, “Syntactic Recursion Facilitates and Working Memory Predicts Recursive Theory of Mind,” PLOS ONE, pp. 0–0, 2017, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: