Etherification of glycerol with C-4 and C-5 reactive olefins

Ikizer, Burcin
Doğu, Timur
Etherification of glycerol with C-4 (i-butene) and C-5 (i-amylenes: 2-Methyl-2-Butene (2M2B) and 2-Methyl-1-Butene (2M1B) mixture) i-olefins was investigated for the production of transportation fuel oxygenates. Results proved formation of mono-, di- and tri-ethers of glycerol, as a result of its etherification with i-amylene at 120-140 degrees C over Amberlyst-36. Glycerol fractional conversion values and di-ether selectivity values approaching to 1.0 and 0.7 respectively were highly promising. Glycerol etherification results obtained by using i-butene as the reactant, proved the importance of Bronsted acidity of the catalyst, as well as the pore diffusion resistance, on the catalytic performance. Silicotungstic acid (STA), with very high acidity, showed very good performance at T <= 80 degrees C. However, at higher temperatures it also facilitated the oligomerization of i-butene, which caused a negative effect on glycerol etherification. Both Amberlyst-36 and Dowex DR-2030 showed excellent performance in catalyzing glycerol with i-butene, at 90 degrees C. Results proved that etherification of the biodiesel by-product glycerol could be successfully achieved by using i-amylenes, as well as i-butene, to improve the economics of biodiesel production.


Hot dynamic consolidation of aifevsi alloy powders
Kotan, Şevkiye Ezgi; Kalkanlı, Ali; Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (2005)
The experimental alloy powders of 1% Mg treated Al-8Fe-1.8V-8Si were obtained by air atomization. The screen analysis of powders was made by sieves with meshes ranging from +90æm, +63æm, +53æm, +45æm, +38æm to -38æm. Unreinforced and TiC particulate reinforced specimens were produced by hot dynamic consolidation which is known as hot swaging. Powders were canned into pure aluminium tubes of about 10cm length and 2.2cm diameter. Single action and double action cold pressing were applied to some of the specim...
Activity Comparison of Different Solid Acid Catalysts in Etherification of Glycerol with tert-Butyl Alcohol in Flow and Batch Reactors
Ozbay, Nalan; OKTAR, NURAY; DOĞU, GÜLŞEN; Doğu, Timur (2013-12-01)
In the presented work, etherification of glycerol with TBA was investigated in a continuous flow and also in a batch reactor using nine different commercial solid acid catalysts, namely Amberlyst-15, Amberlyst-36, Amberlyst-35, Amberlyst-16, Relite EXC8D, Lewatit K2629, H-Beta, H-Mordenite and Nafion SAC-13. Results proved the advantages of flow reactor to achieve quite high glycerol conversion values in very short residence times, due to efficient contact of reactants with the solid catalyst, which was cau...
Thickness effects in hydrogen sorption of magnesium/palladium thin films
Gharavi, Ayshe Gharemeshg; Öztürk, Tayfur; Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (2012)
Magnesium (Mg) thin films with various thicknesses ranging from 50 to 1000 nm capped with nominally 20 nm Palladium (Pd) were prepared by a thermal evaporation unit. A total of 25 glass substrates were used in each experiment. The unit had a rotatable macro shutter, rectangular in shape, rotation axes opposite to the Mg source, which allowed controlled exposure of the substrates. Thin films of 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 800 nm and 1000 nm were produced in a single experiment. Hydrogenation and d...
Reduction of silicon dioxide by electrochemical deoxidation
Ergül, Emre; Karakaya, İshak; Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (2010)
Electrochemical reductions of porous SiO2 pellets and bulk SiO2 plate were investigated in molten CaCl2 and/or CaCl2-NaCl salt mixture. The study focused on effects of temperature, particle size of the starting material, electrolyte composition and cathode design on the reduction rate. The behavior of the cathode contacting materials was also examined. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction. Mainly, XRD analysis and SEM examinations were...
Synthesis of bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3,5,6,7,8 hexols (Bishomoinositols) as glycosidase inhibitors
Baran, Arif; Guenel, Aslihan; Balcı, Metin (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2008-06-20)
For the construction of the bicyclo[2.2.2] octane skeleton, 2,2-dimethyl-3a,7a-dihydro-1,3-benzodioxole was reacted with vinylene carbonate to give two isomeric cycloadditon products having the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton. Hydrolysis of the ketal ring and the opening of the carbonate functionality, followed by hydroxylation of the remaining double bond resulted in the formation of a symmetrical hexol. Epoxidation of the double bond in the cycloaddition products and the subsequent ring-opening reactions pr...
Citation Formats
B. Ikizer, N. OKTAR, and T. Doğu, “Etherification of glycerol with C-4 and C-5 reactive olefins,” FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, pp. 570–577, 2015, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: