Ionic composition of lower tropospheric aerosols at a Northeastern Mediterranean site: implications regarding sources and long-range transport

Koçak, Mustafa
Mihalopoulos, N
Daily bulk aerosol filter samples were collected at Erdemli (36.6degreesN, 34.3degreesE) on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey for a 4-year period between 1996 and 1999. Concentrations of the water-soluble ions (Cl-, Br-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42- MSA(-), Na+; NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) were measured in a total of 610 samples. In addition, three-dimensional (3-D), 3-day back trajectories of air masses arriving daily at Erdemli were calculated to determine potential aerosol source regions. The results indicated that the seasonal variability of atmospheric concentrations for ionic species at Erdemli were related to precipitation events. The atmospheric concentration of measured species (except those of a marine origin) decreased to minimum values during winter, whereas, during dry summer months the lack of precipitation resulted in their accumulation in the atmosphere. During the transition periods, although there was still precipitation, crustal ions (mainly nss-Ca2+ and in lesser extent nss-K+ and nss-Mg2+) exhibited sporadic but intense concentration peaks due to the intrusion of dust from the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. The results obtained from factor analysis and inter-species correlation suggested the presence of three main sources influencing concentrations: crustal, marine and anthropogenic sources. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the main non-sea-salt ions were associated with the formation of NH4HSO4, (NH4)(2)SO4, Ca(NO3)(2), CaSO4 and CaCO3. Formation of NH4NO3 and partial neutralization of H2SO4 by NH4+ and Ca2+ was found to occur mainly in summer.


Ionic composition of aerosols at Northwestern Turkey
Tokgoz, Deniz D. Genc; Dogan, Guray; Ilhan, Ali Ihsan; Balta, Tulay; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal (2015-01-01)
In this study, ionic compositions of 350 aerosol samples collected between April 2006 and May 2008 in a rural area at Northwestern Turkey (Black Sea coast of Turkey) were discussed. Ions accounted for approximately 30% of PM mass. Contributions of secondary aerosol species (NO3-, SO42- and NH4+) were higher than the ions with crustal origin. This indicated that sampling station was under the influence of long range transport because there were no industrial emissions around. Concentrations of ions demonstra...
Nehir, Münevver; Koçak , Mustafa; Department of Oceanography (2016-10-10)
Two stage aerosol (coarse: PM10-2.5 and fine: PM2.5) and rainwater samples were collected at a rural site (Erdemli) located on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, between January 2014 and April 2015. Concentrations of the water-soluble nitrogen species (organic nitrogen (WSON), nitrate, ammonium, total nitrogen (WSTN) and urea) were measured in a total of 740 aerosol and 23 rainwater samples. Among the nitrogen species, WSON (24.6 ± 16.3 nmol N m-3) denoted the highest arithmetic mean and followed by am...
Atmospheric nutrient inputs to the northern levantine basin from a long-term observation: sources and comparison with riverine inputs
Koçak, Mustafa; TUĞRUL, SÜLEYMAN; Mihalopoulos, N (2010-01-01)
Aerosol and rainwater samples have been collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Goksu, Berdan and Lamas) draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB) between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples have been analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43-, Sidiss, NO3- and NH4+). Phosphate and silicate in aerosol ...
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Koçak, Mustafa; Kubilay, Nilguen (2007-11-01)
Two-stage aerosol samples (PM10-2.5 and PM2.5) were collected at a coastal rural site located in the northeastern Mediterranean, between April 2001 and 2002. A total of 562 aerosol samples were analyzed for trace elements (Fe, Ti, Mn, Ca, V, Ni, Zn, Cr) and water-soluble ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42- and 3 4 4 MS-:methane sulfonate). PM10, crustal elements, sea salt aerosols and NO3- were mainly associated with the coarse mode SO42-, C2O42-; whereas non-sea salt (nss) SO42-,...
Chemical composition of Eastern Mediterranean aerosol and precipitation: Indications of long-range transport
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Daily aerosol and wet-only precipitation samples were collected, between January 1992 and January 1994 at a permanent station established on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Collected aerosol and rain samples were analyzed for major ions and a host of trace elements using a combination of analytical techniques, including ion chromatography, atomic absorbtion spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results have demonstrated;hat concentrations of parameters studied are higher than cor...
Citation Formats
M. Koçak and N. Mihalopoulos, “Ionic composition of lower tropospheric aerosols at a Northeastern Mediterranean site: implications regarding sources and long-range transport,” ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, pp. 2067–2077, 2004, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: