Vapor generation and atom traps: Atomic absorption spectrometry at the ng/L level

Atom-trapping atomic absorption spectrometry is a technique that allows detection at the ng/L level for several analytes such as As, Se, Sb, Pb, Bi. Cd, In, TI, Te, Sn and Hg. The principle involves generation of volatile species, usually hydrides, trapping these species on the surface of an atom trap held at an optimized temperature and, finally, revolatilizing the analyte species by rapid heating of the trap and transporting them in a carrier gas to a heated quartz tube, as commonly used with hydride generation AAS systems. A transient signal having, in most cases, a full width at half maximum of less than 1 s is obtained. The atom trap may be a quartz surface or a W-coil; the former is heated externally and the latter is heated resistively. Both collection and revolatilization temperatures are optimized. In some cases, the W-coil itself is used as an electrothermal atomizer and a heated quartz tube is then not needed. The evolution of these traps starts with the wellknown Watling's slotted quartz tube (SQT), continues with atom trapping SQT and finally reaches the present traps mentioned above. The analytical figures of merit for these traps need to be standardized. Naturally, enhancement is on characteristic concentration, Co, where the change in characteristic mass. mo. can be related to trapping efficiency. Novel terms are suggested for E, enhancement factor; such as E..., maximum enhancement factor; E, enhancement for 1.0 minute sampling and E, enhancement for 1.0 ml. of sample. These figures will allow easy comparison of results from different laboratories as well as different analytes and/or traps.


Gas-Screen Slotted Quartz Tube Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: A Remedy for Reducing Interference Effects of Calcium and Chromium
Gholami, M.; Yosefi, M. H.; Behkami, S.; Olyai, M. R. Talei Bavil; ARSLAN, YASİN; BAKIRDERE, Sezgin; Ataman, Osman Yavuz (2013-04-13)
A simple device for the reduction of nonspectral interferences in flame atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. It has been reported that the use of a gas screen (GS) system together with a slotted quartz tube (SQT) enhances the residence time of analyte atoms in measurement zone even more than the SQT alone. This combination causes enhancement of sensitivity and improves the reproducibility of absorbance measurements. In addition, it protects the optical windows of the atomic absorption spectrometer. T...
Cloud point preconcentration of germanium and determination by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry
Boyukbayram, AE; Volkan, Mürvet (2000-07-14)
Cloud point methodology has been successfully employed for the preconcentration of germanium at trace levels from aqueous samples prior to hydride generation flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). Germanium was taken into complex with quercetin in aqueous non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) medium and concentrated in the surfactant rich phase by bringing the solution to the cloud point temperature (19 degrees C). The preconcentration of only 50 mi of solution with 0.1% Triton X-114 and 2 x 10(-5) M q...
Interference studies in slotted silica tube trap technique
Korkmaz, D; Mahmut, M; Helles, R; Ertas, N; Ataman, Osman Yavuz (2003-01-01)
Interference effects of KCl, NH4H2PO4, (NH4)(2)CO3, MgCl2, NH4NO3, NaNO3, (NH4)(2)SO4, MgSO4.7H(2)O, CaCl2, Ca(NO3)(2) and NaCl on Bi, Cd, In, Pb and Sb were investigated using the atom trapping technique with a double slotted silica tube. Analyte solutions at concentration levels of 60, 6, 300, 75, 100 ng mL(-1) for Bi, Cd, In, Pb and Sb, respectively, were aspirated into an air-acetylene flame and analyte species were collected on the silica surface. Revolatilization was effected by aspirating IBMK at the...
In situ atom trapping of Bi on W-coated slotted quartz tube flame atomic absorption spectrometry and interference studies
KILINÇ, ERSİN; BAKIRDERE, Sezgin; AYDIN, FIRAT; Ataman, Osman Yavuz (2013-11-01)
Analytical performances of metal coated slotted quartz tube flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SQT-FAAS) and slotted quartz tube in situ atom trapping flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SQT-AT-FAAS) systems were evaluated for determination of Bi. Non-volatile elements such as Mo, Zr, W and Ta were tried as coating materials. It was observed that W-coated SQT gave the best sensitivity for the determination of Bi for SQT-FAAS and SQT-AT-FMS. The parameters for W-coated SQT-FAAS and W-coated SQT-AT-FAAS ...
Electromagnetic form factors of electrodisintegration of light nuclei near threshold
Yalcin, C; Rekalo, MP; Koru, H (1998-06-01)
The general structure of electromagnetic currents for electrodisintegration of nuclei near threshold, e(-) + A --> e(-) + A(1) + A(2) (A, A(1) and A(2) are arbitrary nuclei or hadrons with spins 0, 1/2 and 1), are established. Considering nuclei as elementary particles with the definite values of spin and space parity and using the conservation of hadronic electromagnetic current and P-invariance of hadron electromagnetic interaction, the spin structure of the amplitudes of the processes gamma* + A --> A(1)...
Citation Formats
O. Y. Ataman, “Vapor generation and atom traps: Atomic absorption spectrometry at the ng/L level,” SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, pp. 825–834, 2008, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: