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Development of Calanus euxinus during spring cold homothermy in the Black Sea

Svetlichny, Leonid S.
Yuneva, Tatyana V.
Hubareva, Elena S.
Schepkina, Alla M.
Besiktepe, Sengul
Kıdeyş, Ahmet Erkan
In copepodites and adults of Calanus euxinus abundance, body length and weight, chemical composition and respiration rate in relation to age were studied during the cruise of R/V 'Knorr' in April 2003 in the southwestern Black Sea and in laboratory experiments. Data on morphology and physiology of C. euxinus collected during other seasons were also used in comparative analyses. At high concentrations of the diatom Proboscia alata during spring homothermy (6.8 to 8.5 degrees C) C. euxinus did not undertake diel vertical migrations to the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). The majority of the population was located above the OMZ, feeding on phytoplankton during nighttime and daytime whilst nearly 10%, of copepodite stages IV and V (CIV and CV) and adults remained constantly in the OMZ. Although a diapausing stock of the population began to form in the OMZ, the majority of CV developed without diapause. The development times of copepodite stages at 8 C were determined on the basis of field observations of ontogenetic changes in carbon content and calculated absolute growth rates. Development time from CI to CV amounted to 22 d. In CV the time for lipid deposition from 0.008 +/- 0.007 mm(3) in postmolts up to a maximum volume of 0.165 +/- 0.054 mm(3) in intermolts constituted 26 d. The total generation time from eggs to adults is not less than about 66 d.