Trace metal solid state speciation in aerosols of the Northern Levantine basin, East Mediterranean

Koçak, Mustafa
Herut, Barak
Nimmo, Malcolm
An established three stage sequential leach scheme was applied to a series of selected high volume aerosol samples (n = Ce35) collected from the Turkish Eastern Mediterranean coastline (Erdemli). Samples were selected according to their air mass back trajectory history to reflect the contrasting mixtures of aerosol material present in the Eastern Mediterranean marine aerosol. Two populations were adopted, those samples which were classed as "anthropogenic" and those which were "Saharan" dominated aerosol populations. Applying the three stage leach it was possible to define the proportion for each of the considered metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Mn) present in the (a) "exchangeable" (b) "carbonate / oxide" and (c) "refractory" phases, representing novel solid state aerosol speciation data for this marine system. Clear trends were established, conforming with data from previous studies with mainly crustal derived metals (Al and Fe) being present in the refractory phases (Al > 88%; F > 84%) and those influenced by anthropogenic sources being dominating in the exchangeable phase, although for these metals the variability was comparatively high (12-64%; 19-85%; 40-100% for Zn, Pb and Cd, respectively). For the majority, greater exchangeable fractions were present the lower the crustal source contribution to the aerosol population, whereas the "refractory" fraction exhibited contrasting behaviour. This was illustrated by the novel application of the mixing diagram, presenting each of the three speciation stages against the corresponding percent anthropogenic contribution to each collected sample. Zn, Pb and Cd all illustrated progressive decrease in the percent exchangeable with increasing crustal contribution to the aerosol population. The percent exchangeable was discussed in terms of its use to represent the upper limit of the bioavailable fraction of metal associated with the aerosol, post deposition. The mixing diagram approach enabled the prediction of the residual fractions for Cd, Pb and Zn (41 +/- 4%; 62 +/- 4% and 82 +/- 5%, respectively,) in Saharan end-member material.


Spatio-temporal aerosol trace metal concentrations and sources in the Levantine Basin of the Eastern Mediterranean
Koçak, Mustafa; Kubilay, N; Herut, B (2004-05-01)
The current study considers the spatial and temporal variability in aerosol trace metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in the Levantine Basin of the Eastern Mediterranean, utilising an extensive sample library (n = 621) collected between 1999 and 2001, at two coastal sites located at the northern, Erdemli (Turkey) and southeastern, Tel Shikmona (TS, Israel), region of the Basin. A critical evaluation of the datasets from the two locations was presented. Enhanced concentrations of Al (1.7 x)...
Atmospheric trace elements in Ankara Turkey 1 factors affecting chemical composition of fine particles
Mustafa, Yatin; TUNCEL, SEMRA; Namik K, Aras; Ilhan, Olmez; Sezer, Aygun; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal (2000-01-01)
Fine and coarse aerosol samples were collected between February and June 1993, in Ankara, Turkey using a stack filter unit (SFU). Collected samples were analyzed for approximately 40 trace elements and major ions using a combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectromerty and ion chromatography. Particle sizing characteristics of the SFU was tested against dichotomous sampler and the sampler was found to be a good alternative for more expensive particle sizing devices. Fo...
Cadmium removal using clinoptilolite : influence of conditioning and regeneration
Gedik, Kadir; İmamoğlu, İpek; Department of Environmental Engineering (2006)
Clinoptilolite samples obtained from two deposits in Turkey were tested for their potential in removing cadmium from aqueous solutions. Preliminary experiments in batch mode revealed inferior cadmium uptake at low pH. Particle size was found to have no effect on cadmium removal efficiency suggesting the use of exchangeable cations found in the internal/available sites. Increasing temperature yielded positive, whereas prewashing had no effect on cadmium removal using both clinoptilolite samples. The Langmuir...
YATIN, M; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal; TUNCEL, G; ARAS, NK (1994-07-01)
Twenty six trace elements were determined by INAA in the aerosol samples collected at two stations in Ankara, Turkey. Industrially derived elements, Se, As, Sb, Zn and Au did not show seasonal dependence and they were not substantially enriched. Elements originating from coal combustion are highly enriched and have higher concentrations in the winter. Correlation factors indicate that motor vehicles, coal and oil combustion are the main sources of aerosols over the city.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sea sediments of the Turkish Mediterranean coast, composition and sources
Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal (2015-03-01)
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 25 surface sediment samples from five sites located at Oludeniz Lagoon of the Turkish Mediterranean coast. The total concentration of the PAHs (1.85 +/- 1.39 mg/kg) was lower than the sediments from highly urbanized areas, while it was comparable with the sediments from similar locations. Acenaphthene and chrysene were dominant ones with the concentrations of 0.620 and 0.515 mg/kg, respectively. The isomeric ratios indicated th...
Citation Formats
M. Koçak, B. Herut, and M. Nimmo, “Trace metal solid state speciation in aerosols of the Northern Levantine basin, East Mediterranean,” JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, pp. 239–257, 2007, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: