Spatio-temporal aerosol trace metal concentrations and sources in the Levantine Basin of the Eastern Mediterranean

Koçak, Mustafa
Kubilay, N
Herut, B
The current study considers the spatial and temporal variability in aerosol trace metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in the Levantine Basin of the Eastern Mediterranean, utilising an extensive sample library (n = 621) collected between 1999 and 2001, at two coastal sites located at the northern, Erdemli (Turkey) and southeastern, Tel Shikmona (TS, Israel), region of the Basin. A critical evaluation of the datasets from the two locations was presented. Enhanced concentrations of Al (1.7 x), Fe (1.8 x), Mn (2.1 x) were detected at the more southerly sampling station, during common dust events, owing to the greater proximity of desert dust sources (NE Africa and Saudi Peninsula); leading to a gradual decline in crustal inputs northwards across the basin. An insignificant Pb gradient was noticed across the Levantine Basin, which has exhibited a decadal decrease (40%). Cr was enriched in the north by a factor of three accounted by local sources. Cu was also enriched, to a lower extent, by about a factor of two. Seasonal variations of the crustal elements (Al, Fe, Mn) at Erdemli were detected (transitional > summer > winter) owing to both, a greater frequency and intensity of dust events during the transitional period and a greater washout effect during winter. It is likely that similar variations occur at TS as both sites experienced similar dust and rainfall events. It was observed at Erdentli that all elements (except Pb and Cd) exhibit their lowest concentrations in the winter period due to a greater washout effect. The lack of seasonal difference between winter and summer for Ph and Cd may have been due to the relatively high emission intensities of regional sources rapidly regenerating aerosol concentrations and their association with fine particles which are less efficiently scavenged during rain events. During the summer, Zn derived from local transportation and agricultural activities, was more pronounced, leading to an enhancement of around 10% in its concentration.


Data from 24 airborne dust samples collected on a land-based atmospheric collection tower at the southeastern coast of Turkey and analyzed for Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, V, Co, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Pb and Cd are presented.
Dry atmospheric fluxes of trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu) over the Levantine Basin: A refined assessment
Koçak, Mustafa; Herut, B; Nimmo, M (2005-12-01)
The current work presents dry deposition fluxes of trace metals to the Southern and Northern Levantine Basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The dry depositional inputs were calculated taking into account (i) the spatial gradients in metal aerosol concentrations across the Levantine Basin (using concentrations from two location, Erdemli, Turkey and Tel Shikmona, Israel over a 3 year sampling period), (ii) the air mass origins, (iii) air mass temporal influence across the north and south Levantine basins a...
Temporal variations and sources of Eastern Mediterranean aerosols based on a 9-year observation
ÖZTÜRK, FATMA; zararsız, Abdullah; Dutkiewicz, V. A.; Husain, L.; Hopke, P. K.; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal (2012-12-01)
Concentrations of 48 elements, NO3-, SO42-, CI-, NH4+ and black carbon (BC) were determined in PM10 aerosols collected daily at a rural Eastern Mediterranean (EM) site (Antalya, 30.34 degrees E, 36.47 degrees N) from 1993 to 2001. Temporal variations (daily, seasonal and long term), sources and source regions of EM aerosols were delineated. Concentrations of elements with marine and crustal origin were more episodic as compared to anthropogenic ones. Most of the variables showed well defined seasonal cycles...
Spatio-temporal variability of the size-fractionated primary production and chlorophyll in the Levantine Basin (northeastern Mediterranean)
Yucel, Nebil (Elsevier BV, 2018-7)
Spatial and temporal variations in size-fractionated primary production (PP) and chl a, in relation to ambient physicochemical parameters, were studied in the three distinct ecosystems of northeastern Levantine Basin namely eutrophic Mersin Bay, mesotrophic Rhodes Gyre, and oligotrophic offshore waters. These ecosystems were visited in July and September 2012 and March and May 2013. Total primary production (TPP) rates ranged between 0.22 and 17.8 mg C m(-3) h(-1) within the euphotic zone, whereas depth-int...
Size distribution of trace elements and major ions in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere
Kuloglu, E; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal (2005-10-01)
Size distribution of trace elements is measured at the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, by analyzing hi-vol impactor samples collected between August 1993 and May 1994. Mass median diameters of marine elements are between 4.6 and 5.3 mu m, and those of crustal elements are between 3.0 and 3.5 mu m. Mass median diameters of crustal elements are 30% smaller in samples impacted by Saharan Dust. Pollution derived elements, As, Cd, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn have MMD's between 1.25 and 1.01 mu m. Although 70-90% of the ma...
Citation Formats
M. Koçak, N. Kubilay, and B. Herut, “Spatio-temporal aerosol trace metal concentrations and sources in the Levantine Basin of the Eastern Mediterranean,” ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, pp. 2133–2144, 2004, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: