Secondary-Task Effects on Learning With Multimedia: An Investigation Through Eye-Movement Analysis

This study investigates secondary-task interference on eye movements through learning with multimedia. We focus on the relationship between the influence of the secondary task on the eye movements of learners, and the learning outcomes as measured by retention, matching, and transfer. Half of the participants performed a spatial tapping task while studying the instructional materials, whereas the other half studied the materials, without spatial tapping. The results revealed suboptimal learning outcomes under the secondary task, which was accompanied by fewer transitions of gaze between the text and the figure. We propose that the suboptimal learning outcomes might be due to the disrupted processing of pictures, and possibly due to the less efficient integration, of the information gathered from the text and figures.


Eye tracking in multimodal comprehension of graphs
Acartürk, Cengiz (2012-07-31)
Eye tracking methodology has been a major empirical research approach for the study of online comprehension processes in reading and scene viewing. The use of eye tracking methodology for the study of diagrammatic representations, however, has been relatively limited so far. The investigation of specific types of diagrammatic representations, such as statistical graphs is even scarce. In this study, we propose eye tracking as an empirical research approach for a systematic analysis of multimodal comprehensi...
Student Engagement in Blended Learning Environments with Lecture-Based and Problem-Based Instructional Approaches
This study investigates how blending of different instructional approaches with technology affects students' engagement. A computer networks course was designed and implemented for the first eight weeks of the semester as a lecture-based blended learning environment and for the second eight weeks of the semester as a problem-based blended learning environment. A single group repeated measures research design was carried out to understand if there are significant differences in measures of student engagement...
Students' Perceptions On Effective Dimensions Of Interactive Learning In A Blended Learning Environment
Delialioğlu, Ömer; Yıldırım, Zahide (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2007)
This study investigates students' perceptions of the "effective dimensions of interactive learning" in a hybrid course. A case- study design was used, and 25 students enrolled in "Computer Networks and Communication," a course at a public university in Turkey, formed the sample of this study. The study lasted for 14 weeks. At the end of the study, interviews were conducted to gather data on the "effective dimensions of interactive learning". Additionally, computer logs of the students were kept and analyzed...
Investigation of classroom management skills by using eye-tracking technology
Çoşkun, Atakan; Çağıltay, Kürşat; Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology (2019)
This study investigates how a wearable eye tracker can be employed to assess and improve the visual attention of the faculty members in a higher education institution. Two experienced faculty members took part in the study. Both of them have been lecturing for more than ten years at the university, so they are experienced teachers. A wearable eye tracker was employed to assess and improve the participants’ visual attention in relation to classroom management skills. Besides, eye-tracking data were supported...
An Eye-Tracking Analysis of Spatial Contiguity Effect in Educational Animations
Altan, Tuğba; Çağıltay, Kürşat (Springer, 2015-01-01)
The purpose of this study is to examine spatial contiguity effect on multimedia learning with an instructional animation using eye-tracking. The research method was experimental method and the study was conducted with a user group consisting of 12 participants (6 female and 6 male). The data collection tools were a demographic survey, a prior knowledge test, a retention test and an eye-tracker. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics including Mann-Whitney...
Citation Formats
C. Acartürk, “Secondary-Task Effects on Learning With Multimedia: An Investigation Through Eye-Movement Analysis,” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION, pp. 126–141, 2017, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: