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Determining the origin of synchronous multifocal bladder cancer by exome sequencing

Acar, Omer
Ozkurt, Ezgi
Demir, Gulfem
Sarac, Hilal
Esen, Tarik
Somel, Mehmet
Background: Synchronous multifocal tumours are commonly observed in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder. The origin of these physically independent tumours has been proposed to occur by either intraluminal migration (clonal) or spontaneous transformation of multiple cells by carcinogens (field effect). It is unclear which model is correct, with several studies supporting both hypotheses. A potential cause of this uncertainty may be the small number of genetic mutations previously used to quantify the relationship between these tumours.