Modeling water quality impacts of petroleum contaminated soils in a reservoir catchment

Soil contamination due to spills or leaks of crude oils and refined hydrocarbons is a common problem. Estimation of spill volume is a crucial issue in order to determine the expected contaminating life span of contaminated soils. The direct procedure to determine the amount of hydrocarbon in soil is to measure the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in soil samples. The primary objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of oil contaminated soils on the water quality of Devegecidi dam reservoir. For this purpose, limited spill data available were evaluated and soil sampling studies were conducted in the Beykan oil field to analyze for TPH on oil contaminated soils. Available spill and measured soil TPH data were used in a subsequent modeling study to assess the reservoir water quality impacts due to dissolved mass leaching from hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Evaluation of available spill data between 1989 and 1995 revealed that a total of 252 recorded spills resulted in a net spill of 395 tons. The major types of oil spills were identified as well heads (WH), return lines/flow lines (RL/FL), and power oil lines (POL). A total of 211 soil samples was collected at selected well heads and analyzed for TPH in the laboratory. TPH results revealed a concentration range between 600 and 115 500 mg kg(-1) with a mean concentration of 20 300 mg kg(-1). Modeling studies focused on behavior assessment and involved two major components. The first component is a soil-leaching submodel for estimating the leachate concentration and contaminant mass leaching out of the contaminated soil body. The second component is a reservoir water quality submodel assuming complete-mix conditions for estimating the changes of hydrocarbon concentration in the reservoir water as a function of time. These two components are coupled via a mass inflow term present in the reservoir water quality model, accounting for contaminant mass loading contributed by the leaching of contaminated soil. Simulation runs performed under conservative conditions assuming an annual average oil spill volume of 95 tons and the minimum reservoir volume of 7.3 x 10(6) m(3) revealed that there is no imminent threat to reservoir water quality from the dissolved phase contaminants soils. Limited amount of available measurements of TPH concentrations in soil samples and benzene concentrations in reservoir water samples supported model results.


Estimation of capillary pressure parameter from total petroleum hydrocarbon measurements in contaminated soils Kilcal basinç parametresinin kirlenmiş topraklardaki toplam petrol hidrokarbonu ölçümlerinden tahmin edilmesi
Ünlü, Kahraman (1995-10-01)
Groundwater contamination from hydrocarbon spills or leaks is a widespread problem. When the volume of released product is small and/or the depth to groundwater is sufficiently great, all of the nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) may be retained in an immobile condition in the unsaturated zone by capillary forces. For larger spill volumes or shallower water tables, NAPL may reach the groundwater where it will spread laterally if its density is less than water. Such light NAPL include most crude oils and refined...
Modeling natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons (btex) in heterogeneous aquifers
Uçankuş, Tuğba; Ünlü, Kahraman; Department of Environmental Engineering (2005)
Natural Attenuation can be an effective cleanup option for remediation of Groundwater contamination by BTEX. One of the important aspects of the methodology that has been recognized recently is that mass removal rates, the most important parameters used to determine effectiveness of the methodology, is controlled by groundwater flow regime, which to a large extent controlled by aquifer heterogeneity. Considering this recognition, the primary objective of this research is to quantitatively describe the relat...
Behavior of pollutants percolation in homogeneous porous media
Sepehri, Shirin; Durgut, İsmail; Okandan, Ender; Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering (2016)
Spillage of petroleum products in soil, rivers and lakes is a problem since the advent of the petroleum era. Contamination of groundwater is one of the most important hazard of spill because it is a threat to animals, plants as well as human life. Fingerprinting of oil spills plays an important role in order to select the best treatment and cleanup method. Soil type, amount and type of contaminant, weathering conditions such as rainfall and wind are important factors that influence soil contamination. In th...
Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water
Okandan, E; Gumrah, F; Demiral, B (2001-05-01)
Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety.
Screening of biosurfactant producing and diesel oil degrading bacteria from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated surface waters
Onur, Gözde; İçgen, Bülent; Department of Environmental Engineering (2015)
Hydrocarbon contamination may happen in various ways such as accidents during fuel transportation by trucks and ships, leakage of oil from underground storage tanks, or during extraction and processing of oil. These contaminations can be treated by several methods including physical, chemical and biological treatment. During biological cleaning up, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria emulsifying hydrocarbons by producing biosurfactants are used. Therefore, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing ...
Citation Formats
K. Ünlü, “Modeling water quality impacts of petroleum contaminated soils in a reservoir catchment,” WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, pp. 169–193, 2000, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: