Development of a metaconceptual awareness and regulation scale

Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet
Kondakçı, Esen
Beeth, Michael Edward
This study aimed to develop the Metaconceptual Awareness and Regulation Scale (MARS) - a self-report instrument for measuring the extent to which students realise, monitor, and evaluate their ideas. MARS consists of 10 items scored on a six-point Likert scale for two factors: metaconceptual awareness and metaconceptual regulation. A pilot study was conducted with 349 10th grade students while 338 11th grade students participated in the validation study. In order to test the two-factor structure of MARS, confirmatory factor analysis was employed with data from the validation study. Findings supported the two-factor structure of the MARS instrument. For further validity evidence, the relationship between students' metaconceptual awareness and regulation and their use of learning strategies were examined using canonical correlation analysis. A significant correlation was found between the factors of MARS and learning strategies. Research and practical applications of MARS by science education researchers and teachers are discussed.

Citation Formats
Z. D. Kirbulut, E. Kondakçı, and M. E. Beeth, “Development of a metaconceptual awareness and regulation scale,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION, vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 2152–2173, 2016, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: