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Flow Visualization in the Wake of the Flapping-Wing MAV ’DelFly II’ in Forward Flight

Perçin, Mustafa
Eisma, H E
van Oudheusden, Bas W.
Remes, Bart
Ruijsink, R
de Wagter, C
Time-resolved velocity field measurements in the wake of the flapping wings of the DelFly II Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) in forward flight configuration were obtained by Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (Stereo-PIV). The PIV measurements were performed at several spanwise planes in the wake of the flapping wings and at a high framing rate to allow a reconstruction of the temporal development of the three dimensional wake structures throughout the flapping cycle. The wake reconstruction was performed by interpolating between the measurement planes through a Kriging interpolation procedure. First, the general wake topology of the DelFly II model is described in conjunction with the behavior of the distinctive flow structures, in particular, tip vortex, trailing edge vortex, and root vortex. Second, the effect of reduced frequency is investigated by changing the flapping frequency. Comparison of the three dimensional wake structures for different cases of reduced frequency reveals major differences in both formation and interaction of vortical structures.