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Sediments, not plants, offer the preferred refuge for Daphnia against fish predation in Mediterranean shallow lakes: an experimental demonstration

Tavsanoglu, Ulku Nihan
Cakiroglu, Ayse Idil
Erdogan, Seyda
Meerhoff, Mariana
Jeppesen, Erik
Beklioğlu, Meryem
1. Different behavioural responses of planktonic animals to their main predators, fish, have been reported from shallow lakes. In north temperate lakes, large-bodied zooplankton may seek refuge from predation among macrophytes, whereas in subtropical lakes, avoidance of macrophytes has been observed. The prevalent behaviour probably depends on the characteristics of the fish community, which in Mediterranean lakes is typically dispersed in both the open water zone and in the littoral, as in temperate lakes, and is dominated by small size classes, as in subtropical lakes.