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Effect of suppressive DNA on CpG-induced immune activation.

Yamada, H
Gursel, I
Takeshita, F
Conover, J
Ishii, KJ
Gürsel, Mayda
Takeshita, S
Klinman, DM
Bacterial DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs stimulate a strong innate immune response. This stimulation can be abrogated by either removing the CpG DNA or adding inhibitory/suppressive motifs. Suppression is dominant over stimulation and is specific for CpG-induced immune responses (having no effect on LPS- or Con A-induced activation). Individual cells noncompetitively internalize both stimulatory and suppressive ODN. Studies using ODN composed of both stimulatory and suppressive motifs indicate that sequence recognition proceeds in a 5'-->3' direction, and that a 5' motif can block recognition of immediately 3' sequences. These findings contribute to our understanding of the immunomodulatory activity of DNA-based products and the rules that govern immune recognition of stimulatory and suppressive motifs.