Emerging cellular functions of the lipid metabolizing enzyme 15-Lipoxygenase-1

Colakoglu, Melis
Tuncer, Sinem
Banerjee, Sreeparna
The oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic and linoleic acid through lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cyclooxygenases (COXs) leads to the production of bioactive lipids that are important both in the induction of acute inflammation and its resolution. Amongst the several isoforms of LOX that are expressed in mammals, 15-LOX-1 was shown to be important both in the context of inflammation, being expressed in cells of the immune system, and in epithelial cells where the enzyme has been shown to crosstalk with a number of important signalling pathways. This review looks into the latest developments in understanding the role of 15-LOX-1 in different disease states with emphasis on the emerging role of the enzyme in the tumour microenvironment as well as a newly re-discovered form of cell death called ferroptosis. We also discuss future perspectives on the feasibility of use of this protein as a target for therapeutic interventions.