Institutional framework for urban development with co-benefits: the Indian experience

Doll, Christopher N. H.
Dreyfus, Magali
Ahmad, Sohail
Balaban, Osman
The co-benefits approach has been proposed as a means for mainstreaming environmental concerns into urban development, especially in developing countries. This paper reviews the Indian situation setting out the urban-environmental challenge. National policies related to urban development, climate change and specific sectors are examined and then, with the aid of cases, analysed to understand the strengths and weaknesses of generating co-benefits in the world's second most populous country.


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This paper presents a methodology to measure the environmental co-benefits of transport initiatives, defined here as carbon emissions in conjunction with local air pollution. An evaluation tool was developed and then tested on the case of the Delhi metro. The metro is an extensive rail project spanning the Indian capital, which is also the world's first rail based Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. However, it has also been a flashpoint in urban policy-making in the city in recent years. This analys...
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Citation Formats
C. N. H. Doll, M. Dreyfus, S. Ahmad, and O. Balaban, “Institutional framework for urban development with co-benefits: the Indian experience,” JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, pp. 121–129, 2013, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: