Lİthofacies and biofacies characteristics of Lower Carboniferous carbonates in Central Taurides, TURKEY

Özdemir, Ayşe
Altıner, Demir
Altıner, Sevinç
The studied successions in the Central Taurides were mainly deposited in a shallow marine environment during the Early Carboniferous time. Conodonts are one of the most important microfossil groups for the Lower Carboniferous biostratigraphy. The measured sections are not rich in conodonts but important species including those of the Lower Carboniferous boundary conodonts. The conodont elements recorded in this study include Gnathodus cuneiformis, Gnathodus girtyi girtyi, Gnathodus girtyi simplex, Kladognathus sp., Lochriea commutata and Vogelgnathus campbelli. Based on the recovered conodont assemblages, Visean - Serpukhovian boundary has been recognized by the first occurrence of Gnathodus girtyi simplex. Conodont faunal variations in Paleozoic to Triassic marine deposits are generally environmentally controlled. Within the context of paleoenvironmental interpretations, different microfacies types could be determined by microfacies criteria reflecting patterns of the depositional environments. The types of microfacies and their environmental interpretations can provide a framework for conodont paleoecology. The defined facies types in BSE section are mainly crinoidal bioclastic packstone, bioclastic grainstone, sandy oolitic grainstone, quartz-peloidal grainstone and quartz arenitic sandstone facies. Crinoidal bioclastic packstones and bioclastic grainstones are suitable facies for conodonts owing to environmental conditions. Bioclasts associated with the conodonts are mainly crinoids, fusulinids, algae, echinoids, brachiopods and ostracods. Conodont elements could not be recorded from sandy oolitic grainstone and quartz arenitic sandstone facies due to the deposition in high energy environments under unstable conditions.