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Artisan Entrepreneurs in Cairo and Early Modern Capitalism (1600-1800)

to Sardar Asad’s Tarikh-i Bakhtiyari (1911) and to the writings of local scholars, which are not free of inaccuracies in regard to the origin of tribal subdivisions (p. 21), the localization of the tribe’s summer and winter quarters (pp. 55–56), and the status of the land (p. 105). These flaws could have been avoided in part or in full had the author paid closer attention to anthropological studies. It comes as a surprise to notice that Khazeni, while claiming to have adopted a viewpoint from the periphery, has overlooked the processes underway inside the tribe, in particular the contradictory game played out between lineage-based forms of solidarity, social stratification, and rivalries within chiefdoms, in particular between the basta (a word not mentioned) ilkhani ¯ and hajj ¯ ¯ı-ilkhan¯ ¯ı. Finally, it should not be taken for granted that the “Third World” center/periphery paradigm, so dear to Samir Amin, is best suited for shedding light on the topic studied in this book. Despite these imperfections, Tribes and Empire contributes to our knowledge of the conditions, persons, and parties involved in several major episodes that marked a turning point in Iranian history. When placed alongside the studies by Gene Garthwaite and Stephanie Cronin, this book makes the history of the Bakhtiyari the best known among the tribes of modern Iran.