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Renewable Energy Sources: Current Perspectives and Future Prospects in Turkey

Renewable energy offers tremendous benefits for meeting global energy needs. Building on a foundation of hydropower, biomass combustion, and geothermal power pioneered during the industrial revolution, new forms of renewable energy began to be developed and commercialized, including solar, wind, and several forms of advanced bioenergy. Today, the global renewable power capacity has almost reached 200 GW and by 2030, the overall demand for energy resources is expected to almost double the current levels. And it is almost certain that renewables will play a major role in fulfilling most of that demand. These technologies are the fastest growing energy technologies-particularly wind and solar-and are cost competitive in a variety of grid, off-grid, and remote applications worldwide. They utilize locally available resources offsetting the need for costly fuel imports, are environmentally beneficial without the harmful emissions of conventional energies, provide diversification to a country's energy mix, and create local job and income opportunities. In this review, renewable energy sources of Turkey, such as solar, wind, bioenergy, geothermal, hydrogen, hydropower, etc., are analyzed in current and future perspectives. Existing demand and supply issues and renewable energy projects are outlined and also government approach to renewal energy is discussed including future plans.