Effects of bromide ion and natural organic matter fractions on the formation and speciation of chlorination by-products

Ates, Nuray
Yetiş, Ülkü
Kitis, Mehmet
The impacts of bromide concentration and natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics on the formation and speciation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in chlorinated NOM fractions were investigated. A total of 20 bulk water NOM fractions with a wide range of specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance (SUVA(254)) values were obtained from a source water employing XAD-8 or XAD-4 resin adsorption in completely mixed batch reactors. SUVA was not a good predictor of DBP [trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX)] formation and speciation. The destruction in the UV(254) absorbance from chlorination did not correlate with DBP formation at any bromide level. NOM moieties which do not absorb UV light at 254 nm significantly contributed to DBP formation. Mass balance calculations on halogens using THMs, HAAs, and AOX data indicated that significant amounts of DBPs (> 54% of AOX) other than THMs and HAAs were formed in NOM fractions with 60-110 mu g/L bromide concentration. The relative occurrence of such other halogenated by-products decreased with increasing bromide concentrations up to 500 mu g/L level. NOM in the studied water was more susceptible to the formation of brominated THM species as opposed to brominated HAAs. At constant dissolved organic carbon concentration, chlorine dose and pH, increasing bromide concentrations in NOM fractions increased the total concentrations of DBPs and resulted in a shift toward the formation of brominated species. Further, increasing bromide concentrations increased the spectrum of detected species (i.e., occurrence of all nine HAAs) and provided a competitive advantage to THM and HAA precursors in NOM over precursors of other DBPs.


Effect of Anaerobic Azo Dye Reduction on Continuous Sludge Digestion
Ozkan-Yucel, Umay Gokce; Gökçay, Celal Ferdi (Wiley, 2014-10-01)
Effect of continuous feeding of a reactive azo dye, reactive orange 107, and its hydrolyzed form (HRO107), on a conventional anaerobic digester was investigated in this study together with observation of change in microbial community. Laboratory-scale digesters were fed with waste activated sludge and azo dye for 575 days continuously. The influent concentrations of reactive azo dye were between 200 and 3200 mg/L. The digester performance was not adversely affected by azo dye and its reduction metabolites t...
Effects of heavy metals on activated sludge process
Dilek, Filiz Bengü; Yetiş, Ülkü (1992-01-01)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects nf various heavy metals on activated sludge process. Different concentrations of Cu(II) (0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/l), Ni(II) (5.0, 10.0, 25.0 mg/l), and Cr(VI) (1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 25.0, 50.0 mg/l) were maintained in a laboratory-scale completely mixed activated sludge unit, without recycle, treating simulated wastewater. The feed solution contained 650 mg/l protein (corresponding to 1300 mg/l COD) as a source nf carbon. Experimental results indicate...
Impacts of atmospheric nutrient deposition on marine productivity: Roles of nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron
Okin, Gregory S.; Baker, Alex R.; Tegen, Ina; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Dentener, Frank J.; Duce, Robert A.; Galloway, James N.; Hunter, Keith; Kanakidou, Maria; Kubilay, Nilgun; Prospero, Joseph M.; Sarin, Manmohan; Surapipith, Vanisa; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2011-06-23)
Nutrients are supplied to the mixed layer of the open ocean by either atmospheric deposition or mixing from deeper waters, and these nutrients drive nitrogen and carbon fixation. To evaluate the importance of atmospheric deposition, we estimate marine nitrogen and carbon fixation from present-day simulations of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. These are compared with observed rates of marine nitrogen and carbon fixation. We find that Fe deposition is more important than P deposition...
The inhibitory effects of lindane in batch and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors
Bayramoğlu, Tuba Hande; Demirer, Göksel Niyazi (Elsevier BV, 2003-01-01)
In this study, the inhibitory effects of lindane (LIN) on originally unacclimated mixed anaerobic cultures were investigated by anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) experiments. ATA experiments revealed that 10 mg/l LIN exerted inhibitory effects on anaerobic cultures, which was recoverable. Continuous reactor experiments conducted to determine the inhibitory effects of LIN and the maximum LIN loading rate achievable in two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors indicated that anaerobic granular cu...
Impact of PCB-118 and transformer oil toxicity on anaerobic digestion of sludge: Anaerobic toxicity assay results
Kaya, Devrim; İmamoğlu, İpek; Sanin, Faika Dilek (Elsevier BV, 2013-08-01)
In this study, possible toxicity of increasing doses of PCB-118 and transformer oil (TO) on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated. For this purpose, five different sets of reactors were prepared in which four different PCB-118 concentration (1, 10, 20, and 30 mg L-1) and three different TO concentration (0.38, 0.76, and 1.52 g L-1) were applied. Throughout the study, biogas production and composition, pH, TS, VS, and COD as well as PCB concentration were monitored. Toxicity was investigated by anaerob...
Citation Formats
N. Ates, Ü. Yetiş, and M. Kitis, “Effects of bromide ion and natural organic matter fractions on the formation and speciation of chlorination by-products,” JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, pp. 947–954, 2007, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/43016.