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The Effects of plyometric training in normobaric hypoxia on body composition, anaerobic performance, strength, and explosive power

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2019
Coşkun, Betül
Purpose of this study is comparing the effects of plyometric training in hypoxia and normoxia on body composition, jump and sprint performance, Wingate anaerobic power and isokinetic strength test results. 23 male volunteers from physical education students (Age=20.39±2.02) participated and were randomly divided into Plyometric training in Hypoxia (PTH)(n=8), Plyometric training in Normoxia (PTN)(n=7) and Control (n=8) groups. While PTH performed plyometric training under normobaric hypoxic conditions (3.536m) with using a face mask attached to a portable hypoxic generator 3 days/week for 8 weeks, PTN performed the same training in normoxic condition. While significant differences were found in Countermovement-jump (14.80%), Squat-jump (16.06%), Drop-jump height (15.97%), Drop-jump contact-time (5.36%), Reactive-Strength-Index (10%) and Sprint (3.42%) in PTH, only variables of Countermovement-jump (8.55%) and Sprint (2.58%) were found to be significant in PTN. According to Wingate results, significant increase was found in peak power both in PTH by 60.53W (7.72%) and PTN by 46.14W (6.09%), and in relative peak power both in PTH by 0.89W/kg (7.89%) and in PTN by 0.81W/kg (7.05%). Only PTH presented a significant increase in Flex.maxTorque (15.69%) and Flex.Peak Power (18%) of right leg at the speed of 60°/sec, and in Flex.Peak Power of right leg (12.30%) at the speed of 180°/sec (p<0,05). Non-significant difference in body composition but greater improvements in strength, sprint and jump in PTH suggests improvements were resulting from neural adaptation rather than hypertrophy. It can be concluded normobaric hypoxia is effective for performance improvement especially in explosive activities, most likely based on neural contribution.