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The effects of microfluidization on rheological and textural properties of gluten-free corn breads

OZTURK, Oguz Kaan
Mert, Behiç
This study presents the potential of microfluidization as a value adding process to corn gluten meal (CGM), which is often used as animal feed and is underutilized in food industry. In this study, we aimed to improve water holding ability of corn gluten and to investigate possibility of using this zein-rich byproduct as the main ingredient in gluten-free bread formulations. For this reason, microfluidization as a milling process for CGM, and its effects on rheological and textural properties of gluten-free bread formulations were investigated. In addition, the effects of pH modification and hydrocolloids were analyzed. Microfluidization led to a higher surface area by disintegrating the large CGM molecules, and the structure became compatible to be used in gluten-free bread formulations by overcoming hydrophobic nature. However, structural deformations were detected with pH modifications. The linear viscoelastic region of dough was observed at strains lower than 0.5%. For all formulations, elastic moduli (G') were higher than viscous moduli (G '') indicating solid-like behavior. The addition of HPMC and guar resulted in higher moduli values. Microfluidization and pH modifications provided brighter color by revealing lutein and zeaxanthin due to decreased particle size. Texture profile showed that microfluidization and hydrocolloids decreased hardness, increased springiness and cohesiveness, which are desired characteristics for bread. Lastly, the addition of hydrocolloids led to an increase in specific volume by providing gas retention within the structure. HPMC provided 1.23-1.62 times bigger samples than control samples while it was only 1.02-1.12 times bigger for samples with guar according to specific volume analysis.