# Mathematical Modeling and Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Oil Migration in Chocolate Confectionery Systems

2017-03-01
Cikrikci, SEVİL
Öztop, Halil Mecit
Oil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects, particularly fat bloom. Several factors such as contact area, ratio of the two fat phases, type of the fat, solid fat content, presence of non-fat solid particles, particle size, viscosity, structure, concentration gradient of triacylglycerols (TAGs), and storage temperature have all effect on migration rate. Mechanism of oil migration has still not been clearly understood, but possible mechanisms have been suggested and studied in the literature. Diffusion mechanism was demonstrated and modeled in many studies. Although there are so many methods to monitor and quantify migration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most promising techniques as being non-destructive. This review covers the literature related to basics of migration, mechanisms, and monitoring and modeling migration in chocolate through MRI and also includes a brief description about chocolate, chocolate processing, and fundamental concepts in MRI.
FOOD ENGINEERING REVIEWS

# Suggestions

 Mathematical modelling and validation of oil migration on a model chocolate system using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Cikrikci, S.; Öztop, Halil Mecit (2016-08-23) Oil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects, particularly fat bloom. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most novel techniques as being a non-destructive method to monitor and quantify migration. The main objective of this study was to model oil migration of peanut butter over dark chocolate layer system stored at 30°C with the predictions of a Fickian-based mathematical model. For this purpose, signal intensity (SI) values of chocolate layers c...
 Oil migration in hazelnut paste/chocolate systems using magnetic resonance imaging Çıkrıkcı, Sevil; Öztop, Halil Mecit (2018-09-01) Oil migration in confectionery products results in undesired quality changes of confections such as fat bloom. Oil migration and the resulting bloom formation in chocolate could be an important quality defect in a confectionery product. This study addressed to evaluate mass transfer of liquid oil on two-layer chocolate model systems prepared from hazelnut paste over different dark chocolate formulations by utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Through the use of MRI, it becomes easier to predict the r...
 Investigating Oil Migration in Two Layer Chocolate Systems with Different Hazelnut Paste and Cream Formulations Over Chocolate Layer by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Technique Çıkrıkcı, Sevil; Öztop, Halil Mecit (null; 2015-08-10) Oil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects particularly fat bloom. Although there are so many methods to monitor and quantify migration, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is among the most novel technique as being a non-destructive method. The main objective of this study was to quantify oil migration from two different hazelnut pastes (oil percentage as 44% and 38.4%) and one hazelnut cream (oil percentage as 30%) products into one type of dark chocolate...
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Citation Formats
S. Cikrikci and H. M. Öztop, “Mathematical Modeling and Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Oil Migration in Chocolate Confectionery Systems,” FOOD ENGINEERING REVIEWS, pp. 50–70, 2017, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/46778.