Characterization of ceramic ware fragments from Aizanoi-Turkey by micro Raman, XRPD and SEM-EDX spectrometry

Güney, Bilge Alp
Ceramic fragments from the antique city of Aizanoi, Turkey were investigated by micro Raman spectrometry in conjunction with XRPD and SEM-EDX analyses. Some basic physical characteristics of the ceramic samples were also investigated. Mite and muscovite were determined as the main clay types in the ceramic fragments. Clay used in the production of ceramic wares was found to be calcareous in most of the samples. No high temperature clay minerals were detected in the ceramics. All ceramic fragments were found to be rich in iron content. Hematite and magnetite were identified to be the principle coloring agents in the investigated samples. The ceramics with hematite content were assessed to be fired in an oxygen rich atmosphere whereas the samples having magnetite were proposed to be fired in an inadequately ventilated kiln. Based on the presence of calcite, dolomite and TiO2 in the crystal form of anatase in the samples, firing temperature during production was estimated to be below 750 degrees C.