A Novel Two-Way Finite-Element Parabolic Equation Groundwave Propagation Tool: Tests With Canonical Structures and Calibration

Apaydin, Gokhan
Ozgun, Ozlem
Kuzuoğlu, Mustafa
Sevgi, Levent
A novel two-way finite-element parabolic equation (PE) (2W-FEMPE) propagation model which handles both forward and backward scattering effects of the groundwave propagation above the Earth's surface over irregular terrain paths through inhomogeneous atmosphere is introduced. A Matlab-based propagation tool for 2W-FEMPE is developed and tested against mathematical exact and asymptotic solutions as well as the recently introduced two-way split-step PE model through a canonical validation, verification, and calibration process for the first time in literature.