Cross-Cultural Differences in Informal Argumentation: Norms, Inductive Biases and Evidentiality

2018-8-13
Karaslaan, Hatice
Hohenberger, Annette
Demir, Mehmet Hilmi
Hall, Simon
Oaksford, Mike
Cross-cultural differences in argumentation may be explained by the use of different norms of reasoning. However, some norms derive from, presumably universal, mathematical laws. This inconsistency can be resolved, by considering that some norms of argumentation, like Bayes theorem, are mathematical functions. Systematic variation in the inputs may produce culture-dependent inductive biases although the function remains invariant. This hypothesis was tested by fitting a Bayesian model to data on informal argumentation from Turkish and English cultures, which linguistically mark evidence quality differently. The experiment varied evidential marking and informant reliability in argumentative dialogues and revealed cross-cultural differences for both independent variables. The Bayesian model fitted the data from both cultures well but there were differences in the parameters consistent with culture-specific inductive biases. These findings are related to current controversies over the universality of the norms of reasoning and the role of normative theories in the psychology of reasoning.
Journal of Cognition and Culture

Suggestions

Future Time Orientation in Romantic Relationships and the minding theory of relating
Öner Özkan, Bengi (Scientific Journal Publishers Ltd, 2004-01-01)
The aim of this study was to explore the differences between high and low scorers of Future Time Orientation in Romantic Relationships (FTORR) on the three subscales of the minding scale, namely Acceptance, Knowledge, and Attribution. Undergraduate students (N = 160) from Middle East Technical University were given the FTORR scale developed by Oner (2000b) together with the Minding Scale developed by Omarzu, Whalen and Harvey (2001). Results indicated an interaction effect between subscales of the minding s...
Environmental moral reasoning patterns of pre-service science teachers and their relationships to epistemological beliefs and values
Tuncay Yüksel, Büşra; Yılmaz Tüzün, Özgül; Department of Elementary Education (2016)
The overarching purpose of this study was to examine environmental moral reasoning patterns of pre-service science teachers in relation to epistemological beliefs and values. To serve for this purpose, four scenarios that reflect different environmental moral dilemma situations taking place in four outdoor recreation contexts (i.e., hiking, picnicking, fishing, camping) were used. By its design, the study was a correlational research and data on environmental moral reasoning, epistemological beliefs, and va...
Hints of beauty in social cognition: Broken symmetries in mental dynamics
Bolender, John (Elsevier BV, 2008-03-01)
It is a widely held assumption that social cognition is wholly the result of natural selection and learning, debates arising over how much was naturally selected versus how much is learned. I argue here, however, for there being a third factor, namely physics, specifically symmetries and symmetry breakings in neural dynamics. These symmetries manifest themselves in social judgments in a fairly direct way as descending chains of subgroup types in mental social schemata. These schemata are the four models of ...
Appropriateness of a cognitive approach to Donald Davidson's meaning theory
Ağoğlu, Eser; Sayan, Erdinç; Department of Philosophy (2008)
The purpose of this study is to discuss the appropriateness of a cognitive approach to Donald Davidson's meaning theory. Davidson makes the bold proposal that a truth theory, modified for a natural language, may be treated as a meaning theory for that language. According to Davidson, a meaning theory is an empirical theory. Radical Interpretation is at the center of such an empirical inquiry which places restrictions on the truth theory to make it suitable as a meaning theory without appeal to semantic noti...
Investigating cognitive mechanisms of offending among adult and juvenile male prisoners: suggestions for intervention
Öncül, Öznur; Gençöz, Tülin; Department of Psychology (2014)
The present study generally aimed to explain the cognitive mechanisms of offending within the framework of transtheoretical model, by providing differences according to the motivational stages. In doing so, the purpose was to develop suggestions for further interventions. Accordingly, four subsequent studies were conducted. After the adaptation of the questionnaires to Turkish, the second study aimed at determining the factors associated with offence-supportive assumptions, defensive strategies, pros and co...
Citation Formats
H. Karaslaan, A. Hohenberger, M. H. Demir, S. Hall, and M. Oaksford, “Cross-Cultural Differences in Informal Argumentation: Norms, Inductive Biases and Evidentiality,” Journal of Cognition and Culture, pp. 358–389, 2018, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/52087.