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Energy Optimal Controller for Electric Vehicles on Partially Icy Roads with Heuristic Skidding Compensation

In this study, a mathematical model is constructed for an electric vehicle. An energy optimal controller is designed for the gross motion model of the vehicle moving on a positive constant slope road with some icy parts. The energy optimal controller takes torque, speed and battery constraints into account. The loss of control during skidding period is compensated with an additional control command based on heuristics. The compensation is based on an enrichment of applied control input throughout the sections before and after skidding in balance within the controller constraints. The energy consumption of the optimal controller is compared with a standard cruise controller throughout several scenarios. These scenarios include constant slope roads with fixed amount of continuous icy part. The scenarios are carefully chosen that both controllers can accomplish to reach the end. It has been shown that energy optimal controller satisfies at least ten percent energy efficiency with respect to cruise controller under the tested scenarios.