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Elements of Open Education: An Invitation to Future Research

Zawacki-Richter, Olaf
Conrad, Dianne
Bozkurt, Aras
Bedenlier, Svenja
Jung, Insung
Stoeter, Joachim
Veletsianos, George
Blaschke, Lisa Marie
Bond, Melissa
Broens, Andrea
Bruhn, Elisa
Dolch, Carina
Kalz, Marco
Kerres, Michael
Kondakçı, Yaşar
Marin, Victoria
Mayrberger, Kerstin
Mueskens, Wolfgang
Naidu, Som
Qayyum, Adnan
Roberts, Jennifer
Sangra, Albert
Loglo, Frank Senyo
van Tryon, Patricia J. Slagter
Xiao, Junhong
This paper explores elements of open education within the context of higher education. After an introduction to the origins of open education and its theoretical foundations, the topics of open and distance learning, international education issues in open education, open educational practices and scholarship, open educational resources, MOOCs, prior learning accreditation and recognition, and learner characteristics are considered, following the framework of macro, meso, and micro levels of research in open and distance learning. Implications for future research at the macro, meso, and micro levels are then provided.