Trophic characteristics of the Sapanca lake (Turkey)

Tuğrul, Süleyman
Öztürk, M
Tufekci, H
Egesel, L
Tufekci, V
Okay, OS
Legovic, T
Systematic measurements of optical properties, concentrations of major and minor chemicals and primary production throughout 1989-1992 enabled us to identify the oligotrophic state of Sapanca lake, Marmara region, Turkey. Lake waters which have low concentrations of major anions and cations (total = 49 mu M) overturn every February-March, ventilating the bottom waters and enriching the surface waters with nutrients. Surface waters cool down to 6.5 degrees C by late winter and then warm steadily to 26 degrees C by late summer, while temperatures in deep waters range between 6.5 and 10.0 degrees C throughout the year. When the seasonal thermocline develops, the dissolved oxygen profiles exhibit a subsurface maximum in the thermocline, while in the hypolimnion water, the content varies seasonally from 11.5-12.0 ppm (350-375 CIM) in March to 0.5-1.7 ppm (16-56 mu M) in late autumn. Surface nitrate concentrations vary markedly with season, from < 0.15 mu M in summer to 5.7 mu M in early March, whilst the bottom water concentrations range from 13.5-14.0 mu M in late autumn to 5.7 mu M after the winter overturn. Phosphate concentrations are always less than 0.1 mu M throughout the entire water column. Subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum descends in late summer to 20-25 m depths, where the Light intensity is less than 1% of the surface value. Below 10-15 m depths, corresponding to the upper thermocline, primary productivity is very low. The range was from 35 to 93 mg C/m(2) day(-1) during 1989-1991, consistent with the values in other oligotrophic lakes.

Citation Formats
E. MORKOÇ et al., “Trophic characteristics of the Sapanca lake (Turkey),” CROATICA CHEMICA ACTA, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 303–322, 1998, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: