A review of the Turco-Italian war of 1911-1912 and related letters of Enver Pasha

Wasti, Syed Tanvir
From the time of the 1877 Turco-Russian war till its disappearance from the stage of history in 1922, the Ottoman Empire was involved in decades of almost continuous war – in Europe, on the Russian front and in the Middle East. The conflict with Italy of 1911–1912 was an example of how powers in decline are forced into war in the face of peremptory demands from stronger neighbours. Italy's unprovoked attack on the Ottoman provinces of Libya in North Africa paved the way for the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 and indirectly also hastened the First World War. A group of Ottoman Turkish military officers along with their Arab and Berber Muslim allies in Libya made a heroic defensive stand and kept the Italian naval invasion pinned to the coastal beach-heads of Libya.


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Reforms introduced in 1839 (known as the Tanzimat) which were intended to modernize the Ottoman political and administrative structure, led inevitably to movements which introduced new literary ideas into the Ottoman cultural sphere. One of the first writers who wished to see Ottoman literature catch up with developments in Europe was Abdulhalim Memduh (1866 - 1905). His contributions covered the areas of poetry, prose, drama, journalism and political activism. Memduh was not content with using classical ch...
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The making of the modern Ottoman state in the 19th century was closely interrelated with population issues and policies. 'Population' became an important component of Ottoman history throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. As the state identified the 'population' as a source of income after the Tanzimat, it tried to protect and procreate it through certain institutional arrangements and regulations. These policies consisted of protecting the existing population, controlling population movements, promo...
Citation Formats
S. T. Wasti, “A review of the Turco-Italian war of 1911-1912 and related letters of Enver Pasha,” MIDDLE EASTERN STUDIES, pp. 131–141, 2020, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/63706.