Color formation in wheat starch based glucose syrups and use of commercially available and laboratory-prepared agricultural waste-based activated carbons for decolorization

Celebi, Ipek
Kincal, N. Suzan
Glucose syrups were produced from wheat starch using alpha-amylase at 97 degrees C for 45-90 min liquefaction times, followed by saccharification with amyloglucosidase at 60 degrees C for 18 h to study the color formation. This was followed by decolorization studies using 0.25 to 1.00 g activated carbon per g of syrup of the commercially available NORIT and several activated carbons prepared from apricot stones and hazelnut shells and husks on laboratory scale. Increase in liquefaction time resulted in higher extents of hydrolysis in both maltodextrins and glucose syrups. In maltodextrins, 9-21% and in glucose syrups 72-98% of the linkages were hydrolyzed at 45-90 min liquefaction times. Color levels of glucose syrups increased with increased liquefaction time. The color levels were between 657-1424 ICUMSA units for glucose syrups obtained at 45-90 min liquefaction times. The dosage of activated carbon necessary to decolorize the syrups to the color level lower than 100 ICUMSA units, however, became lower and lower as the liquefaction time (and the level of starting color), was increased; and this behavior was the same for all types of activated carbon studied. Decolorization performances of NORIT, apricot stone (AS), hazelnut husk (HH) and hazelnut shell (HS) based activated carbons were compared by adjusting the activated carbon dosage to be the same as that of NORIT required for 100 ICUMSA residual color. HH was the best giving practically same residual color as NORIT for the decolorization of 90 min liquefied glucose syrups. The HS and AS had similar performances, reducing the color to less than 180 ICUMSA units for syrups liquefied for 45 and 90 min.


Color formation in wheat starch based glucose syrups and use of activated carbons for sugar decolorizaiton
Çelebi, İpek; Kıncal, Suzan; Department of Chemical Engineering (2006)
Glucose syrups were produced from wheat starch at 45-90 min liquefaction times followed by 18 h saccharification to study the effect of liquefaction time on color formation and the use of several amounts (0.25%-1%) and types (NORIT, commercial; and hazelnut husk, apricot stone, hazelnut shell based; prepared in Chemical Engineering Department) of activated carbons for color removal. The fractional conversion values and color levels of glucose syrups increased with increasing liquefaction time. However, to r...
AZIK, M; YURUM, Y; GAINES, AF (American Chemical Society (ACS), 1994-01-01)
Demineralized (HCl/HF) samples of Beypazari lignite were oxidized in air at 150 degrees C for up 120 h in a ventilated oven. Elemental analyses, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT), solid-state C-13 CP/MAS/TOSS NMR, and pyrolysis mass (PY-MS) spectroscopies as well as solvent swelling were used for the characterization of the oxidized and unoxidized samples. It was found that the removal of 90.1% of the mineral matter from Beypazari lignite facilitated the access of oxygen into the coal s...
OGUZ, M; OLCAY, A (Elsevier BV, 1992-02-01)
Cupric chloride oxidation of Bolu-Goynuk lignite was studied using a four-level factorial design with four process variables: temperature, time. cupric chloride concentration and particle size of the lignite. The main aim was to remove the organic sulphur from the lignite. Maximum organic sulphur removal was achieved by the oxidation of lignite with a particle size of 0.3 mm at 150-degrees-C for 210 min using 50 g CuCl2 per 100 ml of solution.
Extraction of Essential Oil from Laurel Leaves by Using Microwaves
Bayramoglu, Beste; Şahin, Serpil; Şümnü, Servet Gülüm (Informa UK Limited, 2009-01-01)
The effects of microwave power and time in solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) on the yield and composition of the essential oil obtained from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves were studied. The extraction was also performed by hydrodistillation as a control. Specific gravities and refractive indices of the essential oils obtained by different methods and at various conditions were also examined. The main constituent of laurel essential oil was 1,8-cineole (630-730mg/mL). Essential oils obtained by SFM...
Effect of Feed Concentration in Equilibrium Parametric Pumps
Ghasem, Nayef; Orbey, H (Informa UK Limited, 1987-12)
The effect of high initial feed concentration in batch equilibrium parametric pumping was experimentally investigated at different bed temperatures and cycle times. The system studied was benzene-n-hexane over a silica gel bed. It was observed that the initial feed concentration which leads to the best separation is dictated by the shape of the equilibrium isotherms of the system. An increase in the temperature difference between hot and cold cycles was shown to improve the separation because it led to a mo...
Citation Formats
I. Celebi and N. S. Kincal, “Color formation in wheat starch based glucose syrups and use of commercially available and laboratory-prepared agricultural waste-based activated carbons for decolorization,” SEPARATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, pp. 1761–1773, 2007, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: