Distribution and abundance of ctenophores, and their zooplankton food in the Black Sea. I. Pleurobrachia pileus

Mutlu, E
Bingel, F
The distribution of Pleurobrachia pileus Muller, 1776 in the Black Sea was determined using plankton samples collected above the anoxic zone (maximum of 200 m) in the winter, spring, and summer of 1991 to 1995; The summer samples were collected in 1991 to 1993 (for a previous) and are included in this paper for comparative purposes. High concentrations of P. pileus were found at the northern edges of anticyclonic eddies along the southern coastal regions. The biomass and abundance of P. pileus increased from winter through spring to a peak in summer. The highest mean wet weight during a sampling period was 250 g m(-2), while the maximum wet weight was 1429 g m(-2) P. pileus was mostly found in a layer extending from the lower parts of the thermocline down to the anoxic zone, where the temperature was <8 degrees C. The vertical distribution of P. pileus biomass had two clear maxima at night: an upper maximum at 20 to 40 m was less pronounced than the lower maximum at 90 to 120 m depth. Mean body length of P, pileus did not exceed 12 mm. Smaller individuals (9 to 10 mm length) occurred in winter. P. pileus had two length classes in early spring (March 1995) and late summer (August 1993), indicating the presence of both newly hatched and larger individuals. Overall, the stomach contents of P. pileus consisted mainly of Copepoda (90%), Cladocera (1%), Mollusca (1%), fish eggs and larvae (1%), and other taxa (7%). The preferred food of P. pileus (frequency of occurrence) was: Calamus euxinus (39%), Pseudocalanus elongatus (30%), Acartia clausi (28%), Oithona similis (2%), and Paracalanus parvus (1%). The endoparasite Hysterothylacium aduncum was commonly found in P. pileus. Abundances of Mnemiopsis leidyi and P. pileus were either negatively correlated (r = -0.5 to -0.7) or positively correlated at a low significance level (r = 0.25 to 0.3) with abundance of A. clausi in different months of the year. Aurelia aurita abundance was correlated mainly with the abundance of C. euxinus from June 1991 to March/April 1995. Over the same period the abundance of P. pileus was significantly correlated with the abundance of P. elongatus, an important prey species.


Distribution and abundance of ctenophores and their zooplankton food in the Black Sea. II. Mnemiopsis leidyi
Mutlu, E (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 1999-12-01)
The distribution of Mnemiopsis leidyi Agassiz, 1865 in the Black Sea was determined using plankton samples collected above the anoxic zone (maximum depth 200 m) in the summer, winter, and spring from 1991 to 1995. Distribution was patchy. Average biomasses of 15 to 500 g m(-2) were measured, and abundances varied from 10 to 180 ind m(-2). Biomass and abundance peaked in winter, and there was a secondary peak in the summer. The distribution of M. leidyi was correlated with hydrographic features in the Black ...
Diurnal gut pigment rhythm and metabolic rate of Calanus euxinus in the Black Sea
Besiktepe, S; Svetlichny, L; Yuneva, T; Romanova, Z; Shulman, G (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2005-04-01)
The vertical distribution, diel gut pigment content and oxygen consumption of Calanus euxinus were studied in April and September 1995 in the Black Sea. Gut pigment content of C. euxinus females was associated with diel vertical migration of the individuals, and it varied with depth and time. Highest gut pigment content was observed during the nighttime, when females were in the chlorophyll a (chl a) rich surface waters, but significant feeding also occurred in the deep layer. Gut pigment content throughout...
Patterns of dark respiration in aquatic systems
Mantikci, Mustafa; Staehr, Peter A.; Hansen, Jorgen L. S.; Markager, Stiig (CSIRO Publishing, 2020-01-01)
We used continuous measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO) in dark bottles to characterise patterns of the dark respiration rate (R-dark) for three marine phytoplankton monocultures and in natural-water samples from two marine coastal systems. Furthermore, patterns of ecosystem community respiration rate were determined from open-water changes in DO in a fjord and in a lake. We considered two models of R-dark to describe temporal changes in DO: constant R-dark and decreasing R-dark; increasing R-dark. In addi...
Factors controlling the summer Emiliania huxleyi bloom in the Black Sea: A modeling study
Oguz, T; Merico, A (Elsevier BV, 2006-02-01)
A one-dimensional coupled physical-ecosystem model identifies factors causing blooms of the coccolithophore Emilania huxleyi in the Black Sea, regularly observed during the early summer periods. The model specifically applies for a more idealized ecosystem of the interior basin, away from the coastal zone. It is represented in the form of four groups of phytoplankton (diatoms, dinoflagellates, E. huxleyi, a small phytoplankton group), and two groups of zooplankton further accompanied by simplified nitrogen ...
Spatial and temporal variations of tintinnids (Ciliata: Protozoa) in the Bay of Mersin, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea
POLAT, SEVİM; TERBIYIK KURT, TUBA; Tuğrul, Süleyman (National Documentation Centre (EKT), 2019-01-01)
Seasonal variations in species composition and abundance of tintinnids were investigated in the eutrophic coastal and offshore waters of Mersin Bay. Twelve sampling cruises were performed from September 2008 to February 2011. A total of 85 tintinnid taxa were identified. Among the recorded genera, agglutinated Tintinnopsis had the largest number of species (12 species), followed by hyaline loricated Eutintinnius (9 species), and Proplectella (7 species). Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis beroidea, T. co...
Citation Formats
E. Mutlu and F. Bingel, “Distribution and abundance of ctenophores, and their zooplankton food in the Black Sea. I. Pleurobrachia pileus,” MARINE BIOLOGY, pp. 589–601, 1999, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/65171.