State formation from below: the Turkish case

Hunt, A
Tokluoglu, C
This essay focuses on the state-formation theory through the lens of the Turkish state-formation experience. The movements of resistance against state-formation in Turkey such as the internal struggles based on ideological and cultural factors, social banditry, military desertion, ethnic and religiously inspired uprisings, and non-Muslim and non-Turkish opposition are analyzed in the context of a model which has been developed in this study. According to this model state-formation is linked to a wide range of practices of social resistance. To provide the means of exploring the mechanisms of the processes of state-formation that are unintended and unplanned responses provoked by various types of resistance, their impact, not directly on institutional state-formation, but rather on the cultural and ideological dimensions of the same processes has to be carved out. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.


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Citation Formats
A. Hunt and C. Tokluoglu, “State formation from below: the Turkish case,” SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, pp. 617–624, 2002, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: