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Review of post-collisional volcanism in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (Turkey), with special reference to the Tepekoy Volcanic Complex

Geneli, Fatma
Neogene-Quaternary post-collisional volcanism in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP) is mainly characterized by calc-alkaline andesites-dacites, with subordinate tholeiitic-transitional-mildly alkaline basaltic volcanism of the monogenetic cones. Tepekoy Volcanic Complex (TVC) in Nigde area consists of base surge deposits, and medium to high-K andesitic-dacitic lava flows and basaltic andesitic flows associated with monogenetic cones. Tepekoy lava flows petrographically exhibit disequilibrium textures indicative of magma mixing/mingling and a geochemisty characterized by high LILE and low HFSE abundances, negative Nb-Ta, Ba, P and Ti anomalies in mantle-normalized patterns. In this respect, they are similar to the other calc-alkaline volcanics of the CAVP. However, TVC lava flows have higher and variable Ba/Ta, Ba/Nb, Nb/Zr, Ba/TiO2 ratios, indicating a heterogeneous, variably fluid-rich source. All the geochemical features of the TVC are comparable to orogenic andesites elsewhere and point to a sub-continental lithospheric mantle source enriched in incompatible elements due to previous subduction processes. Basaltic monogenetic volcanoes of CAVP display similar patterns, and HFS anomalies on mantle-normalized diagrams, and have incompatible element ratios intermediate between orogenic andesites and within-plate basalts (e.g. OIB). Accordingly, the calc-alkaline and transitional-mildly alkaline basaltic magmas may have a common source region. Variable degrees of partial melting of a heterogeneous source, enriched in incompatible elements due to previous subduction processes followed by fractionation, crustal contamination, and magma mixing in shallow magma chambers produced the calc-alkaline volcanism in the CAVP. Magma generation in the TVC, and CAVP in general is via decompression melting facilitated by a transtensional tectonic regime. Acceleration of the extensional regime, and transcurrent fault systems extending deep into the lithosphere favoured asthenospheric upwelling at the base of the lithosphere, and as a consequence, an increase in temperature. This created fluid-present melting of a fluid-enriched upper lithospheric mantle or lower crustal source, but also mixing with asthenosphere-derived melts. These magmas with hybrid source characteristics produced the tholeiitic-transitional-mildly alkaline basalts depending on the residence times within the crust. Hybrid magmas transported to the surface rapidly, favored by extensional post-collision regime, and produced mildly alkaline monogenetic volcanoes. Hybrid magmas interacted with the calc-alkaline magma chambers during the ascent to the surface suffered slight fractionation and crustal contamination due to relatively longer residence time compared to rapidly rising magmas. In this way they produced the mildly alkaline, transitional, and tholeiitic basaltic magmas. This model can explain the coexistence of a complete spectrum of q-normative, ol-hy-normative, and ne-normative monogenetic basalts with both subduction and within-plate signatures in the CAVP.