Using hydrographic data collected by CTD during five cruises of the 1988 Black Sea Oceanographic Expedition, from 16 April to 29 July 1988, we describe the distribution of potential temperature (theta), salinity (S), and potential density (sigma(theta)) throughout the water column. The salinity and density increase rapidly with depth, while temperature decreases to a minimum at 50 m in the cold intermediate layer (CIL). All three variables increase slowly with depth in the deep water. The hydrographic properties of the upper 200 m varied little over the duration of the 1988 expedition. Significant differences are observed when the 1988 data are compared with the 1969 Atlantis II data set. All of the 1969 data are warmer at a given salinity than the 1988 data to a depth with a salinity of about 21.0 parts per thousand. Possible causes for these changes are increased heat loss to the atmosphere and decreased freshwater input. The most distinctive feature in the deep water is a homogeneous benthic bottom layer that extends from about 1700 m to the bottom. There is a single pronounced step in all hydrographic properties at the top of this layer. Vertical transport across the upper boundary may be controlled by double diffusion driven by geothermal heat flow. The predicted double-diffusive heat flux agrees with geothermal heat flow to within a factor of 5. A simple box model with surface, entrainment and deep-water reservoirs is used to model the entrainment process and the residence time of deep water in the Black Sea. The results suggest that the Bosporus inflow entrains water with properties of the CIL. The ratio of entrainment to Bosporus inflow is 3.3. Assuming a Bosporus inflow of 312 km3 y-1, the resulting residence time of the deep water is 387 years. A total CO2 balance is used to calculate the flux of carbon into the deep water and a C-14 balance is used to calculate the pre-nuclear value of DELTA-C-14 = -200 parts per thousand in the entrainment water. This highly depleted value would have resulted in an apparent age of 1400 years for the CIL and, probably, the surface water as well. If the carbon flux of biological origin was depleted to the same extent this may account for some of the differences in sedimentary chronology based on C-14 dates and varve counts.


Evaluation of SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a in the Black and Mediterranean seas
Sancak, S; Besiktepe, ST; Yılmaz, Ayşen; Lee, M; Frouin, R (Informa UK Limited, 2005-05-20)
The performance of NASA's OC2 and OC4 algorithms to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations from SeaWiFS radiometric measurements on the global scale was tested in two contrasted bio-optical environments, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The in situ bio-optical measurements were made during October 1999 at 25 stations. Comparisons of the in situ measurements with the concurrent SeaWiFS retrievals indicate that the OC2 and OC4 algorithms are not working satisfactorily in both seas. Case 2 waters domina...
Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea
Bilyay, E.; Ozbahceci, B. O.; Yalçıner, Ahmet Cevdet (Copernicus GmbH, 2011-01-01)
A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/H(s) ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called extreme waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate extreme waves, it is believed that studying these...
Slope stability assessment of a re-activated landslide on the Artvin-Savsat junction of a provincial road in Meydancik, Turkey
Topsakal, Ebru; Topal, Tamer (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2015-03-01)
The purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable remediation techniques for an active landslide area in Turkey, using a geological engineering assessment of a re-activated landslide that occurred during the construction of the Artvin-Savsat Junction on the Meydancik Provincial Road, at Km: 12 + 200. For this, the geotechnical parameters of the mobilized geological material-which is colluvium along the sliding surface-were determined by back analyses of the landslide at three geological sections. ...
Investigation of the effect of shearing rate on residual strength of high plastic clay
Akis, Ebru; Mekael, Ahmad; Yılmaz, Mustafa Tolga (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-01-09)
The residual shear strength on failure plane is a crucial parameter to be estimated for analysis of an active landslide. This strength must be determined precisely to build a reliable theoretical model for calculations. The multi-reversal direct-shear test is a practical method to determine this shear strength in laboratory due to wider availability of apparatus. The shearing rate is among the factors that significantly affect the precision of test results for clay specimens. However, limits for this rate a...
Testing of Permian - Lower Triassic stratigraphic data in a half-graben/tilt-block system: evidence for the initial rifting phase in Antalya Nappes
Sahin, Nazif; Altıner, Demir (Canadian Science Publishing, 2019-11-01)
Testing of Middle Permian - Lower Triassic stratigraphic data from the Antalya Nappes in a half-graben/tilt-block system has revealed the presence of episodic rifting events separated by periods of tectonic quiescence. Following a period of uplift during the Permian (Late Artinskian to Roadian), the basement rocks have been activated by displacement faults and several depocenters in half-graben-like asymmetrical basins began to be filled with Roadian to Wordian continental clastic deposits intercalated with...
Citation Formats
J. MURRAY, Z. TOP, and E. OZSOY, “HYDROGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND VENTILATION OF THE BLACK-SEA,” DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART A-OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PAPERS, pp. 0–0, 1991, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/66252.