Nation State and the Individual Alternative Strategies of Consent From Below

Helga, Rittersberger Tılıç
Kalaycıoğlu, Hediye Sibel
The Turkish nation state project introduced itself with drastic reforms which had without doubt great influence on the institutional levels of society as well as on the private life of the people. However, a Western type of state-subject relationship did not develop. The nation state model and the introduction of a Western type modernity was introduced ìfrom aboveî and remained to a large part at the legislative and administrative level alien to the individualsí experiences. Thus, in Turkey we can witness an articulation of a relatively modernized institutional body together with strong traditional family/kin networks which act as alternative means of social control and organization. These alternatives are perceived by the members of society as more efficient mechanisms to gain access to their goals. How do the individuals or better family/kin networks develop strategies to overcome the inefficiencies regarding the state institutions in responding to the needs of the individuals? It was seen that mainly through such individual strategies access was gained to resources concerning for example housing, employment, social security, education and health. We argue that these individual strategies constitute an alternative social organization ìfrom belowî which does not necessarily contradict the stateís modernization goals, and in effect it completes the inefficiencies of the state institutions.
Asian and African Studie, Slovak Academy of Sciences


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Citation Formats
R. T. Helga and H. S. Kalaycıoğlu, “Nation State and the Individual Alternative Strategies of Consent From Below,” Asian and African Studie, Slovak Academy of Sciences, pp. 69–79, 1998, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: