Mapping entrepreneurial activities and entrepreneurial attitudes in Turkey

The GEM broadly defines entrepreneurship as any attempt at new business or new venture creation. This definition encompasses a broad scope of entrepreneurial behaviors. As such, the GEM breaks down the entrepreneurial business cycle into several stages. For this chapter we focus on two stages which are of particular relevance to Turkey. The first stage of entrepreneurship involves the respondents’ readiness to begin an entrepreneurial venture or their intent to start a business within the next three years (termed “Entrepreneurial Intention”). The second stage is the Total Early-Stage Entrepreneur Activity (TEA) rate. The TEA is an indication of how many individuals in an economy are currently participating in entrepreneurial activities. This stage of entrepreneurship is further broken down into two categories, namely Nascent Entrepreneurs and New Firm Entrepreneurs. Nascent entrepreneurs are those actively involved in a startup who expect to own all or part of the new firm and no wages have been paid for more than three months. New Firm Entrepreneurs, meanwhile, are the individuals who are involved as an owner or manager in new firms and wages have been paid for between three to 42 months.


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Citation Formats
Ö. Özdemir, Mapping entrepreneurial activities and entrepreneurial attitudes in Turkey. 2016, p. 70.