Determination of geostatistically representative sampling locations in Porsuk Dam Reservoir Turkey

Aksoy, Ayşegül
Yenilmez, Firdes
Düzgün, Hafize Şebnem
Several factors such as wind action, bathymetry and shape of a lake/reservoir, inflows, outflows, point and diffuse pollution sources result in spatial and temporal variations in water quality of lakes and reservoirs. The guides by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization to design and implement water quality monitoring programs suggest that even a single monitoring station near the center or at the deepest part of a lake will be sufficient to observe long-term trends if there is good horizontal mixing. In stratified water bodies, several samples can be required. According to the guide of sampling and analysis under the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation, a minimum of five sampling locations should be employed to characterize the water quality in a reservoir or a lake. The European Union Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) states to select a sufficient number of monitoring sites to assess the magnitude and impact of point and diffuse sources and hydromorphological pressures in designing a monitoring program. Although existing regulations and guidelines include frameworks for the determination of sampling locations in surface waters, most of them do not specify a procedure in establishment of monitoring aims with representative sampling locations in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, geostatistical tools are used to determine the representative sampling locations in the Porsuk Dam Reservoir (PDR). Kernel density estimation and kriging were used in combination to select the representative sampling locations. Dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity were measured at 81 points. Sixteen of them were used for validation. In selection of the representative sampling locations, care was given to keep similar spatial structure in distributions of measured parameters. A procedure was proposed for that purpose. Results indicated that spatial structure was lost under 30 sampling points. This was as a result of varying water quality in the reservoir due to inflows, point and diffuse inputs, and reservoir hydromorphology. Moreover, hot spots were determined based on kriging and standard error maps. Locations of minimum number of sampling points that represent the actual spatial structure of DO distribution in the Porsuk Dam Reservoir
Citation Formats
A. Aksoy, F. Yenilmez, and H. Ş. Düzgün, “Determination of geostatistically representative sampling locations in Porsuk Dam Reservoir Turkey,” presented at the AGU 46th Annual Fall Meeting, (9 - 13 Eylül 2013), San-Francisco, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, 2013, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: