New generation public spaces How inclusive are they

The proliferation of alluring, distinctive and exclusive public spaces in post-industrial cities raises the question of how far these environments are truly ‘inclusive’. Focusing on this question, this paper explores the changing ‘inclusivity’ of a recently redeveloped public space in the city centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, Britain, by investigating before, during and after the redevelopment scheme regarding the four dimensions of access: i) physical access, ii) social access, iii) access to activities and discussions, iv) access to information. It shows that, contrary to the wide recognition of diminishing ‘inclusivity’ of contemporary public spaces in the urban design and planning literature, the recent refurbishment has in fact had both improving and diminishing impacts on the HBS’ ‘inclusive’ qualities. The paper concludes that new-generation public spaces may show different shades of ‘inclusivity’, in which degrees of access can vary widely; and seeks to give clues for urban planning and design practice.
Open Space: People Space Conference


Questioning ‘Inclusivity’ Of Public Spaces In Post-Industrial Cities: The Case Of Haymarket Bus Station, Newcastle Upon Tyne
Akkar Ercan, Zübeyde Müge (Middle East Technical University, 2005-01-01)
Public spaces, one of the essential components of cities for centuries, have become the focus of broad concern for more than two decades (Francis, 1987; Carr, et al., 1992; Tibbalds, 1992; Mitchell, 1996; Madanipour, 2000). Attractive and alluring public spaces have been placed at the centre of many post-industrial cities. Starting from the 1980s, public spaces have been also increasingly used as the key components of city-marketing and urban regeneration programmes in Britain (Crilley, 1993; Goodwin, 1993;...
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Parallel to the recent rise in interest in public spaces, the proliferation of alluring, distinctive and exclusive public spaces in many post-industrial cities raises the question of how far these environments are truly ‘public’. This paper discusses the question of the ‘publicness’ of contemporary public spaces in Britain, where they have been placed at the top of the political agenda of the Labour Governments since the late-1990s. Studying in depth the changing ‘publicness’ of the Grey's Monument Area (GM...
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Public space, being an inevitable component of cities, is an evolving space that transforms, expands or shrinks. Public spaces of cities, in general, constitute squares and streets that are open to the use of the whole society freely. Recreative areas, parks, coastal areas, most of the open spaces and public buildings, such as schools, administrative centres, are also other forms of public spaces. Over the last four decades, private or quasi-private public spaces, like shopping malls, and the privatization ...
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Public spaces are the core elements of shaping the social life in the cities, and design of public spaces is a key component of urban design. As tools of inclusive or exclusive design methods of public space vary, user group’s publicness increase or decrease relatively. So, who is defined as public for the design of public space is the main concern shaping the built environment. Centers are the peak points of publicness in cities and as a central activity administration is indispensible for every settlement...
Citation Formats
Z. M. Akkar Ercan, “New generation public spaces How inclusive are they,” presented at the Open Space: People Space Conference, 2004, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: